About Ralph Simpson

Ralph Simpson worked in the computer industry for 32 years, at IBM and Cisco Systems. He is now retired and volunteers at a local history museum. He wrote a book on cipher history called, Crypto Wars: 2000 Years of Cipher Evolution. He is also an avid collector of cipher machines, which you can see on his website, CipherHistory.com. Ralph lives in San Jose in a restored Victorian house, which is also home to his Cipher History Museum and a very understanding wife. They have three grown children.

Articles by Ralph Simpson(1)

Before ENIGMA: Breaking the Hebern Rotor Machine

Before ENIGMA: Breaking the Hebern Rotor Machine

The Hebern Rotor Machine was a major innovative leap in cipher technology and was also the first time electrical circuitry was used in a cipher device. Despite its failure to gain market acceptance, it had far-reaching historical significance in World War II and beyond. Unfortunately, its enigmatic inventor, Edward Hebern, would never be recognized or rewarded in his lifetime. Read More