Artifact Details


Monolithic concept and the inventions of integrated circuits by Kilby and Noyce

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Saxena, Arjun N.

Biographical Notes

Arjun Nath Saxena was born in India and worked at the Indian Institute of Nuclear Physics. He received a Ph.D. degree in Physics from Stanford University and joined Fairchild circa 1960, initially reporting to David James, where he worked on epitaxial silicon growth techniques and later tunnel diodes. He moved to the Sprague Electric Company, located in North Adams, Massachusetts, circa 1965 and then went to RCA Labs, located in Princeton, New Jersey, both in semiconductor research roles. He retired as a professor in the Electrical, Computer, and Systems engineering Department at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1997. He served as the Consulting Editor of a book series on Microelectronics Manufacturing and has written the book “Invention of Integrated Circuits: Untold Important Facts.”


Nano Science and Technology Institute

Identifying Numbers

Other number doc-49ba93ef59fb3 Deprecated ITCHP Number


15 p.


In "Monolithic Concept and the Inventions of Integrated Circuits by Kilby and Noyce," Dr. Saxena argues that "the debate over who invented what kind of IC will be resolved by the facts presented in this paper. In some respects, Kilby and Noyce have been denied their due recognition, and in some other respects they have been given more credit in the entire field than they are due. It will become clear that the key concepts for the monolithic-IC were first documented by Noyce, even though the reduction to practice of his invention was done by others, and it depended crucially on Hoerni’s and Lehovec’s inventions. While Kilby’s invention was not for the monolithic-IC, he did anticipate some of the monolithic concepts for the devices and their isolation in an IC. But Kilby missed the key concepts of monolithic interconnects." The paper was presented at the Nano Science and Technology Institute Annual Conference May 20-24, 2007, Santa Clara Convention Center, California, USA. 15 scanned pages.



Collection Title

Information Technology Corporate Histories Collection


The author contributed to the following R&D Technical Reports (TR) and papers in professional publications during his service at Fairchild:

TR67 Epitaxial silicon films (1962-02-12).

TR122 Optical constants and thickness determination with an ellipsometer (1963-06-14).

TR144 Examination and evaluation of Hewlett Packard Associates hot electron diodes (1963-10-21).

TR200 Changes in the phase and amplitude of polarized light reflected from a film-covered surface and their relations with the film thickness (circa 1965).

TR221 A versatile electron microscope reflection stage and its applications (1965-01-29).

TR222 The electrical and gettering mechanism dependence on the structure of copper segregates (1965-01-29).

Saxena, A. N., Changes in the phase & amplitude of polarized light reflected from a film-covered surface. Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 55, no. 9 (1965-09): 1061-1067.

Saxena, A. N., Use of an ellipsometer to determine surface cleanliness and measurement of the optical and dielectric constants of InSb at λ = 5461 Å. Applied Physics Letters, vol. 7, iss. 5 (1965): 113-114.

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