proposal has many enthusiastic reviewers. At an NSF-sponsored
workshop, the idea is revised in a way that both wins
approval and opens up a new epoch for NSF itself. The
revised proposal includes many more universities. It proposes
a three-tiered structure involving ARPANET, a TELENET-based
system, and an e-mail only service called PhoneNet. Gateways
connect the tiers into a seamless whole. This brings the
cost of a site within the reach of the smallest universities.
Moreover, NSF agrees to manage CSNET for two years, after
which it will turn it over to the University Corporation
for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), which is made up of more
than 50 academic institutions.
National Science Board approves the new plan and funds
it for five years at a cost of $5 million. Since the
protocols for interconnecting the subnets of CSNET include
TCP/IP, NSF becomes an early supporter of the Internet.
has ARPANET nodes, as do many Department of Energy (DOE)
sites. Now several Federal agencies support the Internet,
and the number is growing.
by David Patterson at Berkeley and John Hennessy at
Stanford promotes reduced instruction set
computing. IBM selects the disk operating system DOS,
developed by Microsoft, to operate its planned PC.
the beginning of the year, more than 200 computers in
dozens of institutions have been connected in CSNET. BITNET,
another startup network, is based on protocols that include
file transfer via e-mail rather than by the FTP procedure
of the ARPA protocols.
Internet Working Group of DARPA publishes a plan for
the transition of the entire network from the Network
Control Protocol to the TCP/IP protocols developed since
1974 and already in wide use (RFC 801).
Berkeley, Bill Joy incorporates the new TCP/IP suite
into the next release of the Unix operating system.
The first portable computer is launched
in the form of the Osborne, a 24-pound suitcase-sized
IBM PC is launched in August 1981.
Japan mounts a successful challenge to US chip makers
by producing 64-kbit chips so inexpensively that U.S.
competitors charge the chips are being dumped
on the U.S. market.
from the manual for Snipes
magazine names the computer its Man
of the Year. Cray Research announces plans to market
the Cray X-MP system in place of the Cray-1. At the other
end of the scale, the IBM PC clones begin
NSF panel chaired by the Courant Institutes Peter
Lax reports that U.S. scientists lack access to supercomputers.
It contains the testimony of University of Illinois
astrophysicist Larry Smarr that members of his discipline
have been forced to travel to Germany to use American-made
period during which ad hoc networking systems have flourished
has left TCP/IP as only one contender for the title
of standard. Indeed, the International Organization
for Standards (ISO) has written and is pushing ahead
with a reference model of an interconnection
standard called Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
already adopted in preliminary form for interconnecting
DEC equipment. But while OSI is a standard existing
for the most part on paper, the combination of TCP/IP
and the local area networks created with Ethernet technology
are driving the expansion of the living Internet.
Major and Kyle Powell write Snipes, an action game to
be played on PCs over the network. They package
the game as a demo for a PC software product
from SuperSet Software, Inc. This is the beginning of
Communications Associates introduces the first coaxial
cable interface for micro-to-mainframe communications.
Topographic Map, 1983
January, the ARPANET standardizes on the TCP/IP protocols
adopted by the Department of Defense (DOD). The Defense
Communications Agency decides to split the network into
a public ARPANET and a classified MILNET,
with only 45 hosts remaining on the ARPANET. Jon
Postel issues an RFC assigning numbers to the various
interconnected nets. Barry Leiner takes Vint Cerfs
place at DARPA, managing the Internet.
the Internet hosts and keeping tabs on the host names
simply fails to scale with the growth of the Internet.
In November, Jon Postel and Paul Mockapetris of USC/ISI
and Craig Partridge of BBN develop the Domain Name System
(DNS) and recommend the use of the now familiar firstname.lastname@example.org
number of computers connected via these hosts is much
larger, and the growth is accelerating with the commercialization
incorporated TCP/IP into Berkeley Unix, Bill Joy is
key to the formation of Sun Microsystems. Sun develops
workstations that ship with Berkeley Unix and feature
built-in networking. At the same time, the Apollo workstations
ship with a special version of a token ring network.
July 1983, an NSF working group, chaired by Kent Curtis,
issues a plan for A National Computing Environment
for Academic Research to remedy the problems noted
in the Lax report. Congressional hearings result in
advice to NSF to undertake an even more ambitious plan
to make supercomputers available to US scientists.
January, Apple announces the Macintosh. Its user-friendly
interface swells the ranks of new computer users.
William Gibson coins the term cyberspace in Neuromancer,
a book that adds a new genre to science fiction and
newly developed DNS is introduced across the Internet,
with the now familiar domains of .gov, .mil, .edu, .org,
.net, and .com. A domain called .int, for international
entities, is not much used. Instead, hosts in other
countries take a two-letter domain indicating the country.
The British JANET explicitly announces its intention
to serve the nations higher education community,
regardless of discipline.
important for the Internet, NSF issues a request for
proposals to establish supercomputer centers that will
provide access to the entire U.S. research community,
regardless of discipline and location. A new division
of Advanced Scientific Computing is created with a budget
of $200 million over five years.
the first company to offer networked computers, continues
in the marketplace, but fails to achieve critical mass.
& Communications, by Dr. Koji Kobayashi
announces the award of five supercomputing center contracts:
Theory Center (CTC), directed by Nobel laureate Ken
John Von Neumann Center (JVNC) at Princeton, directed
by computational fluid dynamicist Steven Orszag;
National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA),
directed at the University of Illinois by astrophysicist
Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC), sharing locations
at Westinghouse, the University of Pittsburgh, and
Carnegie Mellon University, directed by Michael Levine
and Ralph Roskies;
San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), on the campus
of the University of California, San Diego, and administered
by the General Atomics Company under the direction
of nuclear engineer Sid Karin.
the end of 1985, the number of hosts on the Internet
(all TCP/IP interconnected networks) has reached 2,000.
translates and publishes Computers and Communication
by Dr. Koji Kobayashi, the Chairman of NEC. Dr. Kobayashi,
who joined NEC in 1929, articulates his clear vision
of C & C, the integration of computing
of the NSFNet Backbone
56Kbps backbone between the NSF centers leads to the creation
of a number of regional feeder networks - JVNCNET, NYSERNET,
SURANET, SDSCNET and BARRNET - among others. With the
backbone, these regionals start to build a hub and spoke
infrastructure. This growth in the number of interconnected
networks drives a major expansion in the community including
the DOE, DOD and NASA.
the beginning of 1986 and the end of 1987 the number
of networks grows from 2,000 to nearly 30,000.
is available on workstations and PCs such as the newly
introduced Compaq portable computer. Ethernet is becoming
accepted for wiring inside buildings and across campuses.
Each of these developments drives the introduction of
terms such as bridging and routing and the need for
readily available information on TCP/IP in workshops
and manuals. Companies such as Proteon, Synoptics, Banyan,
Cabletron, Wellfleet, and Cisco emerge with products
to feed this explosion.
the same time, other parts of the U.S. Government and
many of the traditional computer vendors mount an attempt
to validate their products being built to the OSI theoretical
specifications, in the form of the Corporation for Open
starts a major shakeup which becomes known as the Great
Renaming. A driving force is that, as many messages
are traveling over ARPANET, desirable new news groups
such as alt.sex and alt.drugs
are not allowed.
NSF, realizing the rate and commercial significance of
the growth of the Internet, signs a cooperative agreement
with Merit Networks which is assisted by IBM and MCI.
Rick Adams co-founds UUNET to provide commercial access
to UUCP and the USENET newsgroups, which are now available
for the PC. BITNET and CSNET also merge to form CREN.
NSF starts to implement its T1 backbone between the
supercomputing centers with 24 RT-PCs in parallel implemented
by IBM as parallel routers. The T1 idea
is so successful that proposals for T3 speeds in the
early 1987 the number of hosts passes 10,000 and by
year-end there have been over 1,000 RFCs issued.
management starts to become a major issue and it becomes
clear that a protocol is needed between routers to allow
remote management. SNMP is chosen as a simple, quick,
near term solution.
T-1 Backbone Map, 1988
Network Map, 1987
upgrade of the NSFNET backbone to T1 completes and the
Internet starts to become more international with the
connection of Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Iceland,
Norway and Sweden.
the US more regionals spring up - Los Nettos and CERFnet
both in California. In addition, Fidonet, a popular
traditional bulletin board system (BBS) joins the net.
Lynch organizes the first Interop commercial conference
in San Jose for vendors whose TCP/IP products interoperate
reliably. 50 companies make the cut and 5,000 networkers
come to see it all running, to see what works, and to
learn what doesnt work.
US Government pronounces its OSI Profile (GOSIP) is
to be supported in all products purchased for government
use, and states that TCP/IP is an interim solution!
Morris WORM burrows on the Internet into 6,000 of the
60,000 hosts now on the network. This is the first worm
experience and DARPA forms the Computer Emergency Response
Team (CERT) to deal with future such incidents.
CNRI obtains permission from the Federal Networking Council and from MCI to interconnect the commercial MCI Mail service to the Internet. This broke the barrier to carrying commercial traffic on the Internet backbone. By 1989 MCI Mail, OnTyme, Telemail and CompuServe had all interconnected their commercial email systems to the Internet and, in so doing, interconnected with each other for the first time. This was the start of commercial Internet services in the United States (and possibly the world).
diagram describing 'hypertext'
number of hosts increases from 80,000 in January to 130,000
in July to over 160,000 in November!
Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands,
New Zealand and the United Kingdom join the Internet.
e-mail relays start between MCIMail through CNRI and
Compuserve through Ohio State. The Internet Architecture
Board reorganizes again reforming the IETF and the IRTF.
speed up. NSFNET T3 (45Mbps) nodes operate. At Interop
100Mbps LAN technology, known as FDDI, interoperates
among several vendors. The telephone companies start
to work on their own wide area packet switching service
at higher speeds - calling it SMDS.
Kahn and Vint Cerf at CNRI hold the first Gigabit (1000Mbps)
Testbed workshops with funding from ARPA and NSF. Over
600 people from a wide range of industry, government
and academia attend to discuss the formation of 6 gigabit
testbeds across the country.
Cray 3, a direct descendant of the Cray line, starting
from the CDC 6600, is produced.
Switzerland at CERN Tim Berners-Lee addresses the issue
of the constant change in the currency of information
and the turn-over of people on projects. Instead of
an hierarchical or keyword organization, Berners-Lee
proposes a hypertext system that will run across the
Internet on different operating systems. This was the
World Wide Web.