Summary biographies of people included on the "Timeline" pages are listed alphabetically below. Please advise the webmaster of any errors, updates, or omissions via the "Feedback" link at the bottom of the page.
Robert (Bob) A. Abbott was born in Houston, TX. on May 5, 1945. He received a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the University of California, Santa Barbara. After experience on the 1101 Static RAM, in 1970 Abbot was assigned the task of designing the improved version of the 1102 (a custom product for Honeywell), the 1103, that became the industry's first commercially successful DRAM. He took the product as far as tape out after which it became the responsibility of John Reed. Later he designed the 2107, Intel's first 4096-bit DRAM.
Adcock, Willis (November 25, 1922 - Dec 16, 2003)
Willis Alfred Adcock was born in Canada. He immigrated to the United States in 1936 and became an American citizen in 1944. Dr. Adcock was an inventor, physicist, electrical engineer, and educator. Adcock graduated from Brown University with a degree in physical chemistry in 1948. He was recruited by Gordon Teal to work on silicon transistors at Texas Instruments in 1953 and was involved with TI's development of the portable transistor radio for Regency Radio, their supply of transistors to IBM and to the military for the Atlas and Minuteman missiles. Adcock hired Jack Kilby to work on miniaturized circuits and Jay Lathrop who developed photolithography techniques. He retired from TI at age 65 and served as a professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Texas until 1993.
Benjamin J. Agusta joined IBM in 1956 as a manufacturing engineer with an MSEE from MIT. He earned a PhD in electrical engineering from Syracuse University on an IBM scholarship and retuned to the company in 1964 where he joined the Components Division in East Fishkill, NY, under William Harding. Augusta promoted the concept of integrated circuit memory and designed IBM's first dedicated semiconductor memory chip, a 16-bit bipolar device for the System/360 Model 95, in 1965.
From 1955 to 1957, Andrus worked with Walter L. Bond at Bell Labs on applying the photoengraving techniques used in making printed circuits to adapt photolithography to silicon processing. In this approach, photoactive chemicals called "photoresists" deposited on the silicon-dioxide surface layer are used in a photographic process to define precision openings in the layer through which impurities are diffused into the underlying silicon, thus establishing the required electrical properties there. Andrus was awarded a patent on this technique in 1964.
Atalla, Martin M. ("John")
Born in Port Said, Egypt, Atalla earned master's and doctor's degrees in mechanical engineering at Purdue University, the latter in 1949, before beginning work at Bell Labs. There he did pioneering research on the silicon-dioxide layer, which serves as a protective coating on semiconductor silicon. This research led to the development in 1960 of the metal-oxide-semiconductor (or MOS) transistor with Dawon Kahng. The MOS transistor has since become the central active component of semiconductor memories and microprocessors; millions of them can be found on every microchip made today. After leaving Bell Labs, Atalla co-founded Hewlett-Packard Associates to provide the Hewlett-Packard Corporation with solid-state capabilities. In 1973 he founded his own company, the Atalla Corporation, to address the security requirements of banking and financial institutions.
Orville Baker earned a BS in engineering physics in 1956 and joined IBM Federal Systems in Owego NY where he met Bob Noyce and Tom Bay of Fairchild on their mission to sell core driver transistors. In 1959 he moved to Fairchild R&D in Palo Alto, CA. Two years later he left to join the founders of Signetics as employee number 5. Baker adapted a discrete diode-transistor logic circuit he had worked on at IBM to a monolithic IC configuration that was introduced as the SE 100 series. He rose to the position of vice-president for technology and was a board member from 1965 to 1970 when he founded Signetics Memory Systems, later renamed Scientific Microsystems. He later worked for National Semiconductor on the COPS microcontroller products and joined Western Digital as vice president where he designed a Pascal microprocessor engine.
Jack Balletto received a master's degree in electrical engineering from the University of Santa Clara in 1967. He worked at Lockheed in electronic countermeasures and joined Fairchild Semiconductor in an MOS marketing role 1969. With two associates from Fairchild, Balletto co-founded Synertek, an MOS supplier to video game and PC vendors that was acquired by Honeywell in 1978. Mr. Balletto was a founder and the first CEO of VLSI Technology, Inc. He later worked in Hambrecht & Quist's (H&Q) venture capital group before forming the Sunrise Capital funds in 1996.
Bardeen, John (May 23, 1908 - January 30, 1991)
Born in Madison, WI, Bardeen is the only person to have won two Nobel Prizes in physics: in 1956, for the invention of the transistor at Bell Telephone Laboratories (shared with Walter Brattain and William Shockley); and in 1972, for a developing a fundamental theory of superconductivity (shared with Leon Cooper and J. Robert Schrieffer). Raised in Madison, Bardeen received two degrees in electrical engineering at the University of Wisconsin before attending Princeton University, where he earned his Ph.D. in physics in 1936. He taught physics at the University of Minnesota until 1941, leaving to work in naval ordnance during World War II. In 1945 he joined a new Bell Labs solid-state physics group led by Shockley. The following year he and Brattain invented the point-contact transistor. In 1951 Bardeen accepted a joint position as professor of electrical engineering and physics at the University of Illinois, Urbana. Intrigued by superconductivity since 1950, he began working seriously on a theory of this phenomenon with Cooper and Schrieffer in 1955. They published the successful "BCS theory" of superconductivity two years later. He spent the last four decades of his life at the University of Illinois in Urbana, IL, where he died in 1991.
Beckman, Arnold O. (April 10, 1900 - May 18, 2004)
Born in Cullom, Illinois, Beckman received degrees in chemistry and chemical engineering from the University of Illinois before earning his doctorate in chemistry from California Institute of Technology in 1928. While a professor at Caltech, he developed a pH meter and spectrophotometer; he founded Beckman Instruments, Inc., in 1935 to make and sell these and other scientific instruments. Together with William Shockley in 1956, he founded the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Mountain View, CA, as a division of Beckman Instruments. Beckman eventually invested over a million dollars of his company's capital in this venture, which never managed to realize a profit. After its best scientists and engineers departed en masse in 1957 to found the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation, he gradually became disenchanted with Shockley and sold the struggling firm in 1960. For his scientific and business contributions, Beckman was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1989. In later years he turned to philanthropy, establishing the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation to support education and research.
Thomas H. Bennett was born in Mauston, Wisconsin and received a BSEE from Marquette University in 1960. He worked as a co-op student at Centralab, Milwaukee from 1957 to 1960 and on graduating joined the Automatic Electric Labs, division of GTE as a research staff engineer where he developed transistor and TTL IC-based computers for electrical utility & gas pipeline systems. From 1966 - 71 Bennett was manager of calculator development at Victor Comptometer. At Motorola Semiconductor Products Division in Phoenix from 1971 - 1978 he proposed, defined the basic system and internal architecture, and managed the design project for the 6800 MPU and variants. Known as the "Father of the 6800," from 1978 - 2000 he consulted with universities, Motorola and other users on 6800 architecture and system implementations.
Biard, J. R.
James R. Biard worked in the Semiconductor Research and Development Laboratory (SRDL) of Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX on GaAs varactor diodes used in X-band radar receivers. Together with Gary Pittman, in 1961 he discovered infrared light emission from a GaAs tunnel diode for which they received U.S. patent 3,293,513 for the GaAs infrared (IR) light-emitting diode, the first practical LED. In 1962, Texas Instruments announced the first commercial LED product (the SNX-100), which employed a pure GaAs crystal to emit a 900 nm light output. Dr. Biard served on the staff of Texas A&M University as an Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering beginning in 1980.
John Birkner earned an MSEE from the University of Akron, OH in 1971 and worked for Goodyear Aerospace, Philco Ford, and Computer Automation before joining Monolithic Memories, Inc. in 1975. Together with H.T. Chua, he adapted the company's PROM technology to develop a form of programmable logic under the trade name PAL and created a simple PC-based assembler program (PALASM) design tool for users. With Chua and product engineer Andy Chan he founded Peer Research, later renamed QuickLogic Corporation, in 1988.
Julius Blank earned a BS in mechanical engineering from City College, New York in 1950. He joined Western Electric, Kearny, NY in 1952 to work as a machinist where he met toolmaker Eugene Kleiner. Blank and Kleiner were hired in 1956 by William Shockley to build transistor production capabilities at Shockley Semiconductor Laboratories in Mountain View, CA. He left with seven others to found Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 where he designed and built facilities. The last founder to depart, Blank left Fairchild in 1969 and consulted for several years before helping to start Xicor in 1978.
Bond, William L.
From 1955 to 1957, Bond worked with Jules Andrus at Bell Labs on applying the photoengraving techniques used in making printed circuits to do photolithography in silicon processing. In this approach, photoactive chemicals called "photoresists" deposited on the silicon-dioxide surface layer are used in a photographic process to define precision openings in the layer through which impurities are diffused into the underlying silicon, thus establishing the required electrical properties there.
Boone, Gary W.
Gary W. Boone was co-developer with Michael J. Cochran of the TMS1802 calculator chip in 1971, and, per a 1996 Texas Instruments press release, the inventor of the single-chip microcontroller. This was issued after the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office reversed a 1990 patent issued to Gilbert P. Hyatt. Mr. Boone moved to Litronix, Inc., of Cupertino CA in the early 1970s to work on calculator chip designs. In 1998 he commented the "most minimal processor I know of was made at Litronix circa 1976, for use in digital watches. As I recall, this processor could only count, not even add. The architect was Steve McCrystal."
Bose, Jagdish Chandra (November 30, 1858 - November 23, 1937)
Jagdish Chandra Bose was born in Mymensingh (now in Bangladesh). He moved to England in 1880 where he earned a degree in Natural Science from Christ's College, Cambridge. On his return he lectured at Presidency College, Calcutta where, after 1894, he devoted himself to research in refraction, diffraction, polarization, and wireless telegraphy, with emphasis on the study of coherers (devices that detect radio waves). He also founded the Bose Institute at Calcutta, devoted mainly to the study of plants.
Lee Boysel earned an MSEE from the University of Michigan in 1963. He worked at IBM, McDonnell Aerospace Corporation, and Fairchild Semiconductor where he built some of the industry's highest density MOS LSI memory and CPU devices using a four-phase clocking scheme. He founded and served as president, CEO, and chairman of Four-Phase Systems, Inc. in 1969 to exploit the technology to produce low-cost distributed processing computer systems using in-house designed custom devices. Motorola purchased Four-Phase in 1982.
Brattain, Walter Houser (February 10, 1902 - October 13, 1987)
Born in Amoy, China, to American parents, Brattain served as a physicist at Bell Telephone Laboratories from 1929 until 1967. After that he returned to teach at his alma mater Whitman College in Walla Walla, WA, where he died in 1987. Raised in Washington state, Brattain earned his M.S. degree in physics at the University of Oregon after attending Whitman and his Ph.D. at the University of Minnesota in 1928. At Bell Labs he worked first with Joseph Becker on the physics of copper-oxide rectifiers. After working on anti-submarine warfare during World War II, he returned to Bell Labs and in 1945 joined a solid-state physics group headed by William Shockley. In 1947 he invented the first transistor, called the point-contact transistor, with John Bardeen; they were awarded a patent on this breakthrough invention in 1952. Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley then shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in physics for the invention of the transistor.
Braun, Karl Ferdinand (June 6, 1850 - April 20, 1918)
Ferdinand Braun never used his first name or first initial, the use of Karl is a recent affectation of historians. He studied at the Universities of Marburg and Berlin and graduated in 1872. He worked as an assistant at Würzburg University and in 1874 accepted a teaching appointment in Leipzig. Two years later he was appointed Extraordinary Professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Marburg and in 1880 filled a similar post at Strasbourg University. Braun was made Professor of Physics at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe in 1883 and joined the University of Tübingen in 1885. Ten years later he returned to Strasbourg as Principal of the Physics Institute. Braun's discovery of the point-contact diode and invention of what is called Braun's electrometer in Germany (a cathode-ray oscillograph) is overshadowed by his work on wireless telegraphy for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Guglielmo Marconi in 1909.
Paul Brokaw earned a BS in Physics from Oklahoma State University. He worked for Wells Surveys Inc, Arthur D. Little Inc., and Communication Technology Inc. In 1971 he joined Nova Devices, which became the semiconductor division of Analog Devices. As an Analog Fellow he designed a variety of products and holds upward of 100 U.S patents in areas including monolithic A/D and D/A converters, sensors, voltage references, amplifiers, power management circuits, and ASICs. He was selected in 1993 as "Innovator of the Year" by the readers of EDN magazine and elected to the Electronic Design Magazine "Hall of Fame" in 2002.
Buehler served as a technician under Gordon Teal at Bell Telephone Laboratories, where he implemented many of Teal's ideas on growing single crystals of silicon and germanium. Working with Teal and Morgan Sparks, Buehler grew and doped the germanium crystals from which the first truly successful junction transistors were fabricated in 1951. After Teal left for Texas Instruments, Inc., in 1952, Buehler remained with Bell Labs, working for other chemists including Henry Theurer.
Buie, James L. (1920 - 1988)
James (Jim) Buie earned a BSEE from the University of Southern California (USC) in 1949. In 1954 he joined Pacific Semiconductors, Inc. where he worked on high-speed discrete transistor switching circuits. In 1961 he designed a monolithic circuit with a multi-emitter input structure that he called transistor-coupled-transistor logic (TCTL), later known transistor transistor logic (TTL). Buie's prior art prevailed in a patent interference proceeding with Thomas Longo's work on TTL at Sylvania. Buie remained with the company as a senior scientist after it was acquired by the TRW Components Group in 1962 where contributed to processing innovations in dielectric isolation and triple-diffused bipolar devices and their applications to LSI multipliers and data conversion devices. He retired in 1971 and continued to work as a consultant until 1983.
Hans Camenzind earned a BSEE in Switzerland, joined Standard Telephone in Zurich as a junior engineer and on moving to the US earned an MSEE from Northeastern University Boston, MA. Following work at Transitron and Tyco Semiconductor (acquired by P. R. Mallory) he joined Signetics in 1968. He founded semicustom IC design house Interdesign, Inc. in 1970 that he sold to Ferranti (later GEC Plessey) in 1977 when he became responsible for the development of linear ICs at Array Design Inc. Designer of more than 100 standard, custom, and semicustom linear circuits, including the popular 555 timer for Signetics, and holder of 20 patents on linear ICs, Camenzind has written numerous articles and several books on circuit and system design.
Paul H. Castrucci was born in St. Johnsville, New York and joined IBM in1956 after earning a BS in physics from Union College, NY. He managed a semiconductor pilot production line in the Components Division, East Fishkill, NY facility where he worked with Ben Agusta to produce IBM's first 16-bit bipolar memory in 1965 and contributed to the development and production of the successor 64 and 128-bit devices. After managing the Burlington, VT, semiconductor plant Castrucci moved to SEMATECH, Austin, TX as Chief Operating Officer in 1988.
Born in Italy, Napoleone Cavlan earned a BSEE degree from Northeastern University, Boston, Ma. After brief stints with Fairchild and AMS in Silicon Valley, Cavlan jioned Signetics in the mid-1970's as a worldwide evangelist promoting the use of FPLA-based programmable logic products in place of standard logic IC's. Cavlan collaborated in 1975 with design engineer Ron Cline in the definition of Signetics 82S100 FPLA - the first commercially successful field programmable logic array including cascaded AND-OR gate arrays, both programmable. In 1978, he also introduced the first field programmable gate array - Signetics 82S103 FPGA - consisting of a single programmable NAND array. Later, in 1979, as manager of Advanced Products & Applications at Signetics, Cavlan developed and patented advanced programmable architectures in Signetics IFL (Integrated Fuse Logic) family, including registered FPLA's with dynamically reconfigurable flip-flops (FPLS) for optimizing either state machine or data flow-through designs. In 1985, he also patented Signetics PML (Programmable Macro Logic) family consisting of a core fold-back NAND array interconnecting a periphery of locally configurable functional blocks. Subsequently, Cavlan managed new PLD development for MMI and, after that company merged in 1987 with AMD, he joined National Semiconductor as Programmable Logic marketing manager.
Andrew (Andy) K. Chan earned a BSEE in Electrical Engineering from Washington State University and an MSEC in Electrical Sciences from the University of New York, Stonybrook. A design engineering manager at Monolithic Memories Inc, he worked with John Birkner and H.T. Chua in 1977 to develop the PAL family of devices and together with whom he co-founded Peer Research (renamed QuickLogic in 1991) in 1988. As Vice President, Research and Development of QuickLogic he led the development of families of high-speed FPGAs based on an anti-fuse technology.
Chapin worked as an electrical engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories during the 1950s. He is best known as one of the three inventors of the silicon photovoltaic cell, or solar cell, with chemist Calvin Fuller and physicist Gerald Pearson. Fuller had developed diffusion techniques to impregnate silicon wafers with a thin layer of boron impurities, establishing a p-n junction just beneath the silicon surface that served to convert sunlight into electrical energy. Chapin was responsible for the electrical circuitry and testing of these first solar cells, which were announced in 1954 by Bell Labs as the "Solar Battery."
A native of Singapore, Hua-Thye (H.T.) Chua earned a BSEE. from Ohio University and an MSEE from the University of California, Berkeley. Mr. Chua designed bipolar logic and memory devices at Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel's first product a 64-bit Schottky TTL RAM. Together with John Birkner he designed and patented the PAL family of programmable logic devices at Monolithic Memories Inc. for which was named an MMI Fellow. A co-founder of Peer Research (renamed QuickLogic in 1991), he served as Vice President of Technology Development from April 1989 to December 1996.
Ron Cline received his BSEE from MIT in 1971. He began his semiconductor design career with the digital logic team at Signetics in Sunnyvale, California. As lead designer of many of Signetics' memory products he applied the Schottky bipolar process technology to fuse-link PROM devices. In 1975 he designed the 82S100 FPLA, recognized as the industry's first commercially successful programmable logic product. Three years later he delivered the first programmable logic paper chosen for the ISSCC conference, based on what would eventually become the 82S105 registered field-programmable PLA. At Philips Research, Sunnyvale, in the late 80's Cline was instrumental in the definition and development of the QUBiC BICMOS process. In 1994, he proposed the concept and architecture of a full-CMOS low power CPLD and led the Albuquerque, New Mexico design team in developing the Philips Semiconductors CoolRunner family. The CoolRunner product line and engineering group were acquired by Xilinx in 1999. He is currently a Senior Director of FPGA Product Development at that company.
Cochran, Michael J.
Michael Cochran worked with Gary Boone at Texas Instruments in the early 1970s on the design of calculator chips. He participated in the MOS circuit design, personally did much of the systems design, most of the logic design, and all of the software for the first microcomputer chip, the TMS 1000 family. He received numerous "Key Personnel" awards and in a New York Times article, was described by James Fischer, then Vice President of TI, as "Texas Instruments Most Prolific Inventor". He has almost 60 issued patents. As president of Cochran Consulting, Inc. in Richardson, TX, his experience ranges from missile tracking to medical ultrasound and hemodialysis machines.
Cocke, John (May 30, 1925 - July16, 2002)
John Cocke was born in Charlotte, North Carolina. His father served on the Board of Trustees of Duke University, where Cocke did both his undergraduate and graduate work, culminating in a Ph.D. in Mathematics in 1956. He joined IBM the next year and worked there until his retirement. Cocke's first project at IBM was the Stretch Computer. He became a specialist in large systems, and made many advances in architecture and in compiler optimization. Cocke devised the concept of Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) architecture (called the "801" after the building at the Thomas Watson Research Center at which he was working) to speed up and simplify the design of a telephone switching network. Cocke earned over 20 patents and won the National Medal of Technology (1991) and the National Medal of Science (1994).
Milt Collins spent seven years at IBM as Manager of Basic Circuits for the SAGE computer. He also worked as Manager of Advanced Development at Olivetti before joining Transitron in 1961. In February 1965 he was recruited to Teradyne by Nick DeWolff to develop software for the PDP-8 minicomputer in the J259 semiconductor test system, the industry's first commercial machine to employ computer control.
Lynn Conway is a pioneer of microelectronics chip design and a recipient of many honors, including election as a Member of the National Academy of Engineering. Born in 1938 and raised as a boy in White Plains, NY she received an MS in electrical engineering from Columbia University in 1963, and did pioneering research in computer architecture after joining IBM Research at Yorktown Heights, NY, in 1964. Following her gender transition in 1968 she reestablished her career as Lynn Conway in 1969, moving on to Memorex in 1971 and then to the new Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in 1973 where in 1978 she coauthored the influential text book Introduction to VLSI Systems on chip-design with Professor Carver Mead of Caltech. At PARC she defined and guided the development of the innovative MultiProject Chip (MPC) service and contributed to the MOSIS infrastructure for remote-access, fast-turnaround chip implementation. Concurrent with her work at Xerox PARC, Conway served as Visiting Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at M.I.T. in 1978-79. She joined the University of Michigan in 1985 as Professor of EECS and Associate Dean of the College of Engineering.
Bob Cook worked as an electrical engineer at Texas Instruments, Dallas TX in the late 1950s and early 1960s where was lead circuit designer of the company's first monolithic integrated circuit family, the SN51 series of DCTL devices. Two members of this family were the first ICs in space in the 1963 Interplanetary Monitoring Probe (IMP) satellite
Born and raised in World War II-era Liverpool, England Wilfred Corrigan earned a BSc in Chemical Engineering from the Imperial College of Science, London, England. He emigrated to the U.S to work as a production engineer at Transitron Corporation. At Motorola in Phoenix in 1962 he established a high-volume epitaxial process for silicon and germanium transistors and earned five patents related to process engineering. He moved with Lester Hogan to help rebuild Fairchild Semiconductor as director of Discrete Product Groups after the departure of Robert Noyce in 1968. Corrigan succeeded Hogan as president and chief executive officer of Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation in 1974. He worked with Robert Noyce of Intel, Jerry Sanders of AMD and Charlie Sporck of National Semiconductor to form the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) in 1977 and served as chairman from 1989-1990 and 2003-2004. In 1981 he co-founded ASIC pioneer LSI Logic Corporation where he served as president, CEO, and chairman until 2005.
Willy Crabtree worked with George Thiess at a small Texas Instruments spin-off company, Electro-Data, Inc. of Garland, TX to develop a digital quartz wrist watch with a light-emitting diode display. Looking for an established watch company to market their product they approached John Bergy a director of the Hamilton Watch Division, which was developing an electronic analog quartz watch. The Hamilton/Electro-Data joint enterprise completed their first prototypes in 1970 and the world's first electronic digital watch, the Pulsar, was introduced on the market in 1972.
Harvey Cragon was born in 1929 and graduated with a BSEE from Louisiana Polytechnic, Ruston LA. After service in the Korean War in 1953 he joined Hughes Aircraft designing airborne fire-control computers. Cragon joined TI, Dallas, TX in 1958 where he worked with Jack Kilby to promote the use of ICs and in 1961 he hand built a proof-of-concept, IC-based computer under a contract from the Wright Patterson US Air Force base.
Cray, Seymour (1925 - 1996)
Seymour Cray was a pioneer in supercomputing. His innovations include vector register technology, cooling technologies, and magnetic amplifiers. Born in Chippewa Falls, WI in 1925 he served in Europe in World War II and earned a BS in Electrical Engineering and an MS in Applied Mathematics from the University of Minnesota, graduating in 1951. He joined Engineering Research Associates (ERA), later acquired by Univac, and worked on computer designs for the Navy. With William Norris he helped to found Control Data Corporation in Minneapolis, MN in 1957. Cray was responsible for the design of that company's most successful large-scale computers: the CDC 1604, the CDC 6600, and the CDC 7000. In 1972, he founded Cray Research to design and build general-purpose supercomputers, notably the Cray-1, which established a new standard in high-performance computing in 1976. In 1981, Cray relinquished his position as chairman of the board to devote himself full-time to the design of the Cray-2, which was introduced in 1985. He died in an automobile accident in Colorado on September 22, 1996.
Czochralski, Jan (October 23, 1885 - April 22, 1953)
Jan Czochralski (pronounced cho-HRAL-skee) was a Polish chemist who discovered the Czochralski process that is used to grow single crystals for the production of semiconductor wafers. He was born in Kcynia, at that time under Prussian administration. In 1904 he moved to Berlin, Germany where, from 1907 to 1917, he worked as an engineer in Allgemeine Elektrizitats Gesellschaft (AEG) while studying chemical and metallurgical science and fine arts at Berlin University. He developed the Czochralski method in 1916. It was used initially to measure the crystallisation rate of metals. In 1917 Czochralski organized the research laboratory of Metallbank und Metallurgische Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main where he served as director until 1928. He was one of the founders and the president of the German Scientific Society of Metal Sciences and in 1929 returned to Poland where he organized the Institute of Metallurgy and Metal Sciences of Warsaw Technical University. He supported the Polish resistance during World War II and afterwards ran BION, a small drug firm in his native Kcynia.
Alexander Vladimir d'Arbeloff was a co-founder of Teradyne, Boston, MA-based manufacturer of automatic test equipment in 1960. After graduating in 1949 with a degree in management from MIT, together with another MIT alumnus Nicholas DeWolf, they built Teradyne into one of the largest players in the global ATE market as integrated circuits became increasingly important in every aspect of technology. He remained with Teradyne until his retirement as chairman in 2000. D'Arbeloff was a director of Lotus Development Corporation and a director of the Whitehead Institute. He was a member of the MIT Corporation from 1989, and Chairman of the Corporation from 1997 to 2003. He was also a former chairman of the Massachusetts High Technology Council.
D'Asaro, L. A.
L. Arthur D'Asaro received a Masters degree in Physics from Northwestern University and a PhD in Engineering Physics from Cornell University in 1955. He joined Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ in that year and continued at Bell Labs for the next 41 years. During that time he worked on a wide variety of semiconductor devices. In the mid-1950s he co-developed (with Ian Ross and Howard Loar) an integrated silicon multi-transistor counting device called a stepping transistor, using photolithography and diffusion. Some additional devices to which he contributed were: optical isolators, single mode stripe geometry semiconductor lasers, Schottky barrier microwave diodes, high power microwave via-transistors, guard-ring avalanche multiplication photodiodes, massively parallel optoelectronic integrated circuit arrays, VCSELs and large VCSEL arrays. Until recently he was a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff at Princeton Optronics, where he continued to work on high power VCSELs and VCSEL arrays.
A scientist at the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute in Leningrad, Boris Davydov described a model for the rectification action of a point-contact diode in copper oxide in a paper "On the rectification of current at the boundary between two semiconductors," in a Russian journal in 1938. This work published, contemporaneously with that of Nevill Mott in the U.K. and Walter Schottky in Germany, influenced John Bardeen in his understanding of semiconductor phenomena.
Deal, Bruce (1927 - 2007)
Bruce Deal was born and raised in Nebraska. He graduated with a PhD from Iowa State University in 1955 and joined the Kaiser Aluminum laboratory in Spokane, WA. He moved to Rheem Semiconductor in Mountain View, CA and on to Fairchild R&D in Palo Alto in 1963 where he was hired by C. T. Sah to work with Andy Grove and Ed Snow on MOS transistor technology. Deal remained as a Principal Technologist until the company was acquired by National Semiconductor in 1988. He was president of the Electrochemical Society (1988-1989) and in 1992 was appointed a consulting professor in the Electrical Engineering Department of Stanford University, CA.
Dennard, Robert H
Robert Dennard received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, in 1954 and 1956, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1958. Subsequently he joined the IBM Research Division, where his early experience included the study of new devices and circuits for logic and memory applications, and the development of advanced data communication techniques. Since 1963, he has been located at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York, where he has been involved in microelectronics research and development since its beginning. His primary work has been in field-effect transistors (FETs) and the integrated digital circuits that use them. In 1967 he invented the dynamic RAM memory cell used in most computers today. With others, he developed the concept of FET scaling in 1972. In 1979 he was appointed an IBM Fellow. Dr. Dennard is a Fellow of the IEEE and received the IEEE Cledo Brunetti Award in 1982. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1984. Dr. Dennard received the National Medal of Technology from President Reagan in 1988 for his invention of the one-transistor dynamic memory cell. He also received the I.R.I. Achievement Award from the Industrial Research Institute in 1989, and the Harvey Prize from Technion in Haifa, Israel, in 1990. [Credit: IBM, J. Res. Develop. Vol. 39 No. 5, September 1995]
As a technician at Bell Labs, Derick and chemist Carl Frosch discovered the crucial protective oxide layer on silicon during the spring of 1955. While diffusing trace impurities into silicon wafers, they accidentally ignited a hydrogen fire that coated the wafers with silicon dioxide. They subsequently developed techniques to etch tiny openings in this layer and use them in patterning the underlying silicon with n-type and p-type impurities. This key breakthrough eventually enabled the invention of the silicon integrated circuit.
DeWolf, Nicholas (July 12, 1928 - April 16, 2006)
"A distant relative" of American patriot Ben Franklin, Nicholas DeWolf was born to a prosperous family in Philadelphia in 1928. He graduated from MIT at age 19, went to work as an engineer for General Electric and left to become chief engineer at Transitron in the mid-1950s where he worked on testing new transistor products. In 1960 DeWolf co-founded Teradyne with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) classmate Alex d'Arbeloff. During his eleven years as CEO of Teradyne, DeWolf is credited with designing more than 300 semiconductor and other test systems, including the J259, the world's first computer-operated integrated circuit tester. He left Teradyne in 1971, and lived with his family in Aspen, CO where he was involved in civic, charitable and educational programs. In 1979, DeWolf was awarded the Semiconductor Equipment & Materials International (SEMI) Award for outstanding contributions to the industry.
Robert Dobkin is a founder, vice president and Chief Technical Officer of Linear Technology Corporation. At Linear he was responsible for all new product development until 1999. Prior to founding Linear Technology in 1981, Mr. Dobkin was Director of Advanced Circuit Development at National Semiconductor for eleven years. He has been intimately involved in the development of high performance linear integrated circuits for over 30 years and has generated many industry standard circuits. Mr. Dobkin holds over 50 patents pertaining to linear ICs and has authored over 50 articles and papers. He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Dan Dooley graduated with an MSEE from Cal State Long Beach and an MBA from Pepperdine University in 1978. He worked for Motorola, Hughes, and TRW Systems in Southern California before joining Marvin Rudin and Garth Wilson in starting Precision Monolithics Inc. in Silicon Valley in 1969. While at PMI, Dooley designed the first fully monolithic DAC - the DAC01 - a 6-bit device with a diffused resistor network and an output op-amp. He joined National Semiconductor in 1980 as vice president of special products, including optoelectronic devices, hybrids, modules, and sensors. After leaving National in 1986, Dooley consulted with start-ups Lasa Industries and Integrated Sensor Solutions.
Dummer, Geoffrey (February 25, 1909 - September 16, 2002)
Geoffrey W. A. Dummer joined the British Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) in 1939. He was awarded the MBE and the United States Medal of Freedom for his wartime work on radar display equipment and aircraft flight simulators. As a pioneer in reliability engineering he served on European and NATO component standardization committees. In 1952 he gave a paper at a conference in Washington, DC that predicted the development of the integrated circuit. Work on the concept at his laboratory at the Royal Radar Establishment in Malvern and subcontracted to the Plessey Company failed to produce any working devices.
Dunwoody, Henry (1842 - 1933)
Born in Highland County, Ohio, Henry Harrison Chase Dunwoody graduated from United States Military College, West Point in 1866. He was in was in charge of weather forecasting for the Weather Bureau for many year and headed the Signal Corps of the American Army in the Cuban Campaign rising to the rank of Colonel, Signal Officer, U. S. Army in 1898. In 1906 he received a patent for the "carborundum" (silicon carbide) cat's-whisker crystal radio detector shortly after Pickard patented the silicon detector.
Edison, Thomas (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931)
Revered American inventor Thomas Alva Edison was born in Milan, Ohio and spent much of his youth in Port Huron, Michigan. A precocious child, he took a job as a trainboy on the Grand Trunk Railway at age 12 where he learned to use the telegraph. From 1862 Edison worked as a roving telegrapher until in 1869 he began a full-time career inventing at a workshop in Newark, New Jersey where he produced the Edison Universal Stock Printer and the automatic telegraph. In 1876 Edison opened a laboratory in Menlo Park, NJ where he was dubbed the "Wizard of Menlo Park" for his inventions of the carbon-button transmitter and the tinfoil phonograph. In the late 1870s, he established the Edison Electric Light Company based on his incandescent electric light bulb. In 1882, he supervised the installation of the first commercial, central power system in lower Manhattan. In 1883, one of Edison's engineers William J. Hammer discovered the phenomenon known as "Edison effect," which led to the electron tube. Edison also introduced the commercial phonograph, the Edison storage battery, the mimeograph, and the first talking moving pictures. In 1915, he was appointed president of the U.S. Navy Consulting Board. In total he patented more than 1,000 discoveries.
Reimer Emeis worked as a research scientist on silicon alloy power transistors and crystal growth techniques in the semiconductor research laboratories of Siemens-Schuckertwerke AG, Pretzfeld, Germany in the 1950's. He independently developed a version of the Floating Zone Process, known as the "Siemens-process," described in the journal Naturforschung in 1954.
George Erdi was born in Budapest, Hungary on July 1, 1939. He received the Bachelor of Engineering degree in 1965 from McGill University, Montreal, Canada and the M.S. degree in 1966 from the University of California, Berkeley. In 1966 he joined the Linear Integrated Circuit Section of Fairchild Semiconductor's Research and Development Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif., where his activities included the design of the µA722 monolithic digital to analog converter and a precision operational amplifier. In 1969 he was one of the founding employees of Precision Monolithic Inc., Santa Clara, CA (where he designed the OP7 op-amp) and of Linear Technology, Inc in 1981 where he was responsible for precision operational amplifiers, D/A converters, precision comparators and other analog functions. He authored numerous technical articles relating to his design activities.
Born in Osaka, Japan in 1925, Leona (Leo) Esaki is one of only three Japanese physicists to receive a Nobel Prize. He earned a B.S. in Physics in 1947 and a PhD in 1959 from the University of Tokyo. Esaki joined Sony Corporation where, during research into heavily-doped Ge and Si material, in 1957 he discovered the first commercial quantum electron device, the tunnel diode for which he received the 1973 Nobel physics prize. In 1960 Esaki joined the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York as a resident consultant. He was made an IBM Fellow in 1967. His work on man-made semiconductor structures such as superlattices and quantum wells won him numerous awards and academic honors in Japan and the US.
Federico Faggin was born in 1941 in Vicenza, Italy. After attending technical high school, he worked at Olivetti where he designed and built his first computer at age 19. He earned a doctorate in physics from the University of Padua in 1965 and joined the faculty as an assistant professor. Faggin worked at SGS-Fairchild in Milan on MOS ICs and transferred to Fairchild R&D in Palo Alto, CA in 1968 where he led the development of the MOS silicon gate process technology and designed the first commercial MOS Silicon-Gate IC. In 1970 he joined Intel where he led the design of the Intel 4004 and 8008 microprocessors. He also conceived and supervised the design of Intel's first high-performance 8-bit microprocessor, the 8080. Mr. Faggin co-founded and was CEO of Zilog Inc. (1974) where he conceived the Z80 microprocessor and the Z8 microcontroller. He was also co-founder and CEO of Cygnet Technologies, Inc. (1982), and Synaptics, Inc. (1986). In 2003, he became CEO of Foveon, Inc.
After earning a BSEE from New York University in 1953, Don Farina worked at Sperry Gyroscope where he was an early user of Fairchild mesa transistors. He joined Fairchild in 1959 as an applications engineer in co-founder Vic Grinch's department responsible for measuring transistor parameters. Bob Norman credits Don's work on characterizing the small geometry 2N1210 planar transistor over several decades of collector current with providing essential data for designing the first monolithic integrated circuits. Farina followed Norman to General Microelectronics in 1963 where he worked on MOS devices. He founded semiconductor and systems design house Integrated Systems Technology after Philco Ford acquired GME in 1966.
Faraday, Michael (September 22, 1791-August 25, 1867)
Born in London, England, Michael Faraday gained his scientific education after leaving school at 14 by reading extensively. While an assistant to chemist Sir Humphry Davy at the Royal Institution he developed and published work on electromagnetic rotation (the principle behind the electric motor). Prior to discovering electromagnetic induction, the principle behind the electric transformer and generator in 1831 he was elected a member of the Royal Society (1924) and established a reputation as the outstanding scientific lecturer of his time. He continued to develop his ideas about electricity and was appointed to several important positions in the scientific community including Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich. Originally coined in his honor to describe a unit of electrical charge, the name farad was later applied to today's unit of capacitance.
Hal Feeney earned a BSEE from Notre Dame University and an MSEE from Stanford University. He joined Intel and worked as a design engineer on the first 4-bit (4004) and 8-bit (8008) microprocessor projects. After transferring to microprocessor marketing, he served as manager of Business Planning for Microcomputer Systems and Development Systems. At market research company Dataquest, Mr. Feeney was Group Vice President and Director of Dataquest's Semiconductor Group before founding Pathfinder Research in San Jose, CA.
Felker, Jean H. (March 14, 1919 - February 27, 1994)
Born in Centralia, IL, Jean Howard Felker received a BSEE from Washington University, St. Louis, MI, in 1941. Commissioned into the navy in 1942, he learned radar technology in England and served at Fort Monmouth, NJ until 1945 when he joined Bell Laboratories, Military Systems Laboratory in Whippany, NJ. In 1950 he demonstrated computer logic circuits using point contact transistors that led to an Air Force contract to build TRADIC, the first transistorized computer in the US. He later served as vice-president of operations for the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company and vice-president for software and processor technologies at Bell Laboratories before retiring in 1981.
Fleming, John (November 29, 1849 - April 18, 1945)
Physicist John Ambrose Fleming was born in Lancaster, England as the eldest of seven children of a Congregational minister. Throughout his life a he remained a devout Christian and lay preacher. He graduated from University College, London and taught at several universities before becoming the first Professor of Electrical Engineering at University College. In 1904 he invented and patented a two-electrode vacuum-tube rectifier, which he called an oscillation valve. It was also known as the Fleming valve, thermionic valve, and vacuum tube diode. He was knighted (made Sir John) in 1929 and was widely recognized for his role in establishing physical and engineering approaches to the study of radio.
Don Forbes worked as a draughtsman and engineer at Fairchild Research and Development Laboratory in Palo Alto, CA. In 1964-65 he created the engineering drawings and contributed to the design of the ceramic dual-inline-package (CERDIP) under Rex Rice, manager of the Digital Systems Research Department.
Frenkel, Jacov (February 10, 1894 - January 23, 1952)
Physicist Yakov Il'ich Frenkel (also known as Jacov Frenkel when he published in English) was born in Rostov-on-Don, Russia. He graduated from Petrograd (St. Petersburg) University in 1913 and joined the staff of the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute in 1921 where he taught and performed research until his death in 1952. Frenkel contributed in several areas of semiconductor physics, including identifying the Frenkel crystallographic defect and an important monograph on the "Kinetic theory of liquids" based on his extensive studies of the theory of liquid state.
Dov Frohman-Bentchkowsky was born to Polish Jewish refugees in Amsterdam, Holland, in 1939. He was raised in hiding during the war and emigrated to Israel in 1949. He received a BSc degree in electrical engineering in 1963 from the Israeli Institute of Technology, Haifa, and an MS and PhD from University of California at Berkeley. Frohman worked at the Fairchild Semiconductor, R&D Laboratory, Palo Alto from 1965 to 1969 after which he joined Intel Corporation where he developed the concept of the EPROM in 1970. He returned to Israel in 1974 where he established a design center and taught at Hebrew University. In 1985 Frohman was appointed general manger of Intel Israel and remained until his retirement in 2001.
Frosch, Carl J.
A physical chemist at Bell Labs during the 1950s, Frosh and his technician Lincoln Derick discovered the crucial protective oxide layer on silicon in the spring of 1955. While diffusing trace impurities into wafers of silicon, they accidentally ignited a hydrogen fire that coated the wafers with silicon-dioxide layer. They subsequently developed techniques to etch tiny openings in this layer and use them in patterning the underlying silicon with n-type and p-type impurities, publishing their methods in the September 1957 issue of the Journal of the Electrochemical Society. This breakthrough eventually enabled the invention of the silicon integrated circuit.
After earning a MSEE from Cambridge University in 1963, David Fullagar worked for Ferranti in Edinburg, Scotland and in 1965 emigrated to the US to join Transitron. Moving to the Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Laboratory in Palo Alto in 1966 he made important contributions to the manufacturability of the µ709 operational amplifier. In 1968 he came up with the concept for the internally compensated up amp and transferred to Mountain View to bring into production what became the industry's best selling linear IC, the µA741. Recruited by Intersil in 1969 as the company's first linear designer Fullagar went on to manage the European operation and later became vice president of R&D. Together with Jack Gifford and Fred Beck, he co-founded Maxim Integrated Products in 1983 where he served as vice president of R&D and Applications until his retirement in 1999.
Fuller, Calvin S.
During the early 1950s, Fuller pioneered the development of solid-state diffusion as a physical chemist at Bell Labs. Using this process, workers can introduce extremely thin layers - in some cases, less than a micrometer deep - of dopant impurities into germanium, silicon and other semiconductors. It permits precision control of the thickness of these layers and their impurity concentrations. Fuller's impurity-diffusion process allowed the manufacture of high-speed transistors in the late 1950s and silicon integrated circuits beginning in the 1960s. To this day it remains a crucial processing technique used throughout the semiconductor industry.
Between 1968 and 1970 logic design engineer Steve Geller worked together with Ray Holt on the MP944 microprocessor chip set for the Central Air Data Computer (CADC) at Garrett AiResearch Corp, Torrance, California. Designed under contract from Grumman Aircraft, the prime contractor for the US Navy, the 20-bit, pipelined, parallel multi-microprocessor CADC controlled the moving surfaces and displayed pilot information in the US Navy F14A "TomCat" fighter jet.
Marcel J. E. Golay worked at the U. S. Army Signal Corps, Fort Monmouth, NJ where together with Paul H. Keck in 1953-54 he developed floating zone techniques for high-purity refining of silicon. Earlier he was a member of the "V-2 Upper Atmosphere Research Panel" created in 1946 to work with captured V-2 rockets in sounding rocket research.
Grimsdale, Richard (1929 - 2005)
Born in Australia of British parents, Richard Grimsdale earned BSc and PhD degrees in Electrical Engineering from Manchester University, England. He learned computer programming on the EDSAC machine at Cambridge University and retuned to Manchester where with Douglas Webb in 1953 he developed the first transistorized computer. He collaborated with engineers at Metropolitan Vickers to build the commercial MV950 computer and in the 1970s joined a successor company Associated Electrical Industries to work on automation systems. From 1967 until his retirement Mr. Grimsdale served as an electrical engineering professor at Sussex University.
Grinich, Victor (November 24, 1924 - November 5, 2000)
Born in Aberdeen, Washington to Croatian immigrants parents Victor Grgurinović formally changed his name to Grinich to simplify roll call during his service in the U.S. Navy in World War II. He received a Bachelor's degree from the University of Washington in 1950 and a PhD in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University in 1953 after which he pursued research at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Hired by William Shockley in 1956, Grinich was a member of the group of eight technologists who left Shockley Semiconductor to found Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957. At Fairchild he set up the test lab and other electronic systems where he was responsible for device characterization and applications. His department grew into the important Fairchild Instrumentation business. Mr. Grinich left Fairchild in 1968 to found Escort Memory Systems and later taught at Stanford and the University of California at Berkeley.
András István Gróf was born in Budapest, Hungary in 1936. He escaped during the Hungarian Revolution and arrived in the United States in 1957 where he earned a BS degree from the City College of New York and PhD in Chemical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1963. As Andrew Stephen Grove, he joined the Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Laboratory in 1963, where together with Bruce Deal and Ed Snow he helped to resolve many of the fundamental technological issues associated with stable MOS devices. In 1968 he joined Intel Corporation as Director of Engineering, rising to president in 1979, CEO in 1987, and chairman of the board in 1998. Under Grove's leadership, Intel grew into the largest and most recognized semiconductor company in the world. He has written more than 40 technical papers and several books, holds several patents in semiconductor devices and technology, and has taught at the University of California, Berkeley and the Stanford University Graduate School of Business.
Isy Haas was born and raised in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1934. He graduated from American-run Robert College, now Boğaziçi University Turkey's leading public university. He attended Princeton University in US and where he received an MS in Electrical Engineering and Solid State Physics in 1957. Haas joined Remington Rand Univac in Philadelphia as a circuit engineer on the Univac computer family and moved to the west coast to work on device evaluation for Vic Grinich at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1958. After contributing to the development of the first planar integrated circuit family in 1961 he joined Jay Last at Amelco, a division of Teledyne. Hass left Teledyne in 1968 and started his own IC design company providing IC design services to major semiconductor companies until 1995 except for an 18 month period of employment at General Instrument in Chandler, AZ in 1978. He now lives in Tempe, AZ.
John H. Hall studied electronics in the Navy and after graduating from the University of Cincinnati in 1961 with degrees in math and science worked for Rockwell on the Minuteman program. At Honeywell he designed custom ICs for the YF-11 Blackbird Reconnaissance aircraft on-board computer. From 1962-67 Hall served as Director of IC Development at Union Carbide under Jean Hoerni and in 1968 he followed Hoerni to Intersil where he headed R&D. Funded by Seiko, Hall founded Micro Power Systems in 1971 to focus on ultra-low-power technologies, including CMOS for electronic watches. Since 1986 Hall has been Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Linear Integrated Systems, Inc. specializing in bipolar linear and high-speed CMOS digital circuits.
Hammer, William J.
(February 26, 1858 - March 24, 1934)
William Joseph Hammer was born at Cressona, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania and attended private and public schools in Newark, New Jersey. He started as a laboratory assistant to Thomas Edison at Menlo Park, New Jersey in 1870 where he worked on many projects, including the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, and the incandescent electric lamp. In 1880 he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Edison Lamp Works and was described by Edison as "my most valuable assistant at Menlo Park." While testing vacuum light bulbs Hammer noted a blue glow around the positive pole that was originally called "Hammer's Phantom Shadow." This discovery, renamed the "Edison Effect," became the basis of electron tube theory. He is also known for his later work on electroluminescence and selenium cells and as the owner of one of the first airplanes sold in the United States to an individual.
Harris, James R.
Engineer James R. Harris worked with J. H. Felker on the design and construction of Bell Laboratories' Phase I TRansistorized DIgital Computer (TRADIC) in Whippany, New Jersey in 1954. He made important contributions towards developing reliability information that convinced the armed forces that this new technology could meet their demanding applications. Harris describes this and other related experiences in a memoir published as "The Earliest Solid-State Digital Computers" in the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing Volume 21, Issue 4 (Oct-Dec, 1999) pp. 49-54. He retired from Bell Labs in 1983.
Heil, Oskar (1908 - 1994)
Born in in Langwieden, Germany Oskar Heil studied chemistry, mathematics, music, and physics at the Georg-August University in Gõttingen, Germany and was awarded a PhD in molecular spectroscopy in 1933. There he met and married Russian physicist Agnesa Arsenjeva (1901-1991). Both worked at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge under Lord Rutherford where he studied microwave devices and in 1935 was awarded a British patent on an FET-like structure. Returning to Germany he joined C. Lorenz AG of Berlin where he developed a microwave generator named for him. He is best known today as the inventor of the Heil "Air Motion Transformer" principle employed in high-fidelity speakers.
Frederic P. Heiman joined the RCA David Sarnoff Research Center in Princeton, New Jersey with a BSEE from Cooper Union in New York in 1959 as part of a work/study program leading to an MSEE and PhD at Princeton University. His work with Steven R. Hofstein on the development of silicon insulated-gate field effect transistors was published in RCA and IEEE journals in 1962 and 63. In late 1962 they integrated a single chip containing a multipurpose block of 16 MOS transistors. Together with Hofstein and Karl Zaininger, Heiman is recognized as a key leading figure in early MOS work at RCA. Heiman left RCA in 1969 to join Hofstein at Princeton Electronic Products Inc, then, in 1972, joined candy giant M&M Mars as president of its electronics division. From 1983 to 1986 he served as director of corporate planning at Intel after which he joined bar-code scanning company Symbol Technologies and started the company's RF Systems Division.
Hilsch, Rudolf 1903-1972
German physicist Rudolf Hilsch was affiliated with Georg-August University in Gõttingen, Germany from 1932-1938 and again from 1953-1972. From 1939-1953 he was at Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg in Erlangen, Germany. At Gõttingen in 1938 he worked with Robert W. Pohl on experimental field-effect transistor structures. He is noted for prize-winning work on the ultra-violet absorption of crystals in 1926 and the Hilsch "vortex" refrigeration tube in the 1940s.
Hoerni, Jean (September 26, 1924 - January 12, 1997)
Born and raised in Switzerland, Hoerni earned two doctorates in physics, at the Universities of Geneva and Cambridge, before coming to the United States and working as a postdoc at Caltech. He joined Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in 1956 and left in September 1957 to found Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation with seven other dissidents. At Fairchild Hoerni conceived the planar silicon transistor on 1 December 1957 and successfully developed it in early 1959. Because its diffused p-n junctions were safely protected from contamination by the silicon-dioxide surface layer, it proved much more stable than mesa transistors and soon replaced them in semiconductor circles. His planar processing technique also led to the invention and development of the silicon integrated circuit at Fairchild under Robert Noyce and Jay Last in 1959-61. Hoerni left Fairchild with Last in early 1961 to help found the Amelco divison of Teledyne, Inc., expressly to manufacture integrated circuits. He left Teledyne in 1963 for Union Carbide, heading a research unit. In 1967 he established Intersil (short for International Silicon) with mainly European investors, producing MOS transistors and integrated circuits for calculators and watches. He founded several other companies, including Telmos to make high-voltage MOS devices.
Marcian Edward "Ted" Hoff, Jr. was born in Rochester, New York. He received a BSEE from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY in 1958. During a summer job at the General Railway Signal Company in Rochester he made developments that inspired his first two patents. He received an MS (1959) and a PhD (1962) in electrical engineering from Stanford University. He joined Intel in 1968 as Manager of Applications Research where he worked on semiconductor memory projects before leading the architectural definition of Intel's pioneering microprocessor products. In 1980, he was named the first Intel Fellow, the highest technical position in the company. He spent a brief time as VP for Technology with Atari in the early 1980s and is currently VP and Chief Technical Officer with Teklicon, Inc.
Hofstein, Steven R.
Steven R. Hofstein joined the RCA David Sarnoff Research Center in Princeton, New Jersey with a BSEE from City College of New York in 1959 as part of a work/study program leading to an MSEE and PhD at Princeton University. His work with Frederic P. Heiman on the development of silicon insulated-gate field effect transistors was published in RCA and IEEE journals in 1962 and 63. In late 1962 they integrated a single chip containing a multipurpose block of 16 MOS transistors. Together with Heiman and Karl Zaininger, Hofstein is recognized as a leading figure in early MOS work at RCA. Hofstein left RCA in 1968 to found Princeton Electronic Products Inc., which produced silicon-target, scan-converter tubes and image computers. In 1989 he founded business consulting service company Ascot Technologies Inc., now Ati Systems Inc., in Coral Springs, FL.
Hogan, C. Lester (February 8, 1920 - August 12, 2008)
Clarence Lester "Les" Hogan was born in Great Falls, Montana, where his father worked for the Great Northern Railroad. After graduating from Montana State University with a degree in chemical engineering he joined the U.S. Navy in 1942. Following war service he earned an MS and a PhD in Physics from Lehigh University. Dr. Hogan joined Bell Labs in 1950 where he invented the microwave gyrator. From 1953 through 1958 he was associate professor of applied physics at Harvard University after which he joined Motorola in Phoenix, Arizona as general manager of the semiconductor operation. In 1968 he was recruited by Sherman Fairchild as President and CEO of Fairchild Camera & Instrument Corporation, was appointed vice chairman in 1974, and retired in 1985. His honors and awards include the 1975 IEEE "Frederik Philips Award," the 1978 AEA Medal of Achievement, and in 1993 the "MTT-S Microwave Pioneer Award". In 1996, a chair at the department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley was named in his honor.
Holloway, Peter R.
Peter Holloway attended Northeastern University and designed high-speed analog circuits at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, operated as a consulting engineer, and founded Compumod, Inc. After working as a senior design engineer at Analog Devices, Inc. in the late 1970's he founded analog/mixed-signal design center East Coast Labs, Inc. in Salem, New Hampshire in 1992 and served as president until the company was purchased by National Semiconductor in 1996.
Raymond M. Holt earned a BS in Electronic Engineering, Cal Poly University-Pomona, Pomona CA and an MS in Computer Science, from Santa Clara University, Santa Clara CA. As a Systems Research/Development Engineer at Garrett AiResearch Corp, Torrance, California from 1968-71 together with Steve Geller, he designed a microprocessor 6-chip set for the F14 "Tomcat" Central Air Data Computer. At AMI from 1971-73 he designed the AMI 7200 and AMI 7300 single-chip microprocessors and as founder of Microcomputer Associates he worked on the prototype of the Radio Shack TRS 80. From 1978 to 82 Mr. Holt was Director of Systems Engineering at Honeywell/Synertek Corp in Santa Clara, California.
Ted Jenkins earned a BS in 1965 and an MS in 1966 from the California Institute of Technology (aka Caltech) in Pasadena, CA. He was recruited to the Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Laboratory in Palo Alto where he worked on linear circuit processing technology until joining an Intel lab in Pasadena, CA in 1969 to develop a zinc sulfide-based LED. Jenkins moved to Santa Clara to create the process for the first Intel Schottky bipolar memory product. He held a variety of assignments in manufacturing and general management and retired as vice president and director of corporate licensing in 1999.
Harwick Johnson received the B.S. degree from Michigan Technological University, Houghton, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Wisconsin, Madison He was with the David Sarnoff Research Center, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J. where he directed more than a dozen members of the technical staff on early transistor research in the Electronic Research Laboratory. He specialized in the analysis of electron device behavior. He authored several papers on electronics development and was coeditor and contributing author of one of the first books on MOS transistors. Johnson filed a patent in 1953 on what would now be called an integrated-circuit phase-shift oscillator.
On graduating from Stanford in 1967, Ed Jones was hired by his former college colleague Hugh Mays at the Fairchild R&D Laboratory in Palo Alto to write automatic test generation and place and route software for the design of gate array and standard cell devices. He worked for Boeing Computer Services, division of the Boeing Airplane Company, in Palo Alto in the mid-1970s before moving with another Fairchild colleague James Koford to define the architecture and design CAD systems for LSI Logic gate arrays in 1981.
Loebe Julie earned a BSEE from the City College of New York in 1941 and then spent two years as a civilian engineer with the Army Signal Corps in Fort Monmouth, N.J. where he designed a compact dual-channel amplifier for a machine-gun and mortar locator. Hired to work in a lab in the Division of War Research at Columbia University, he simplified the design of multi-stage vacuum tube-based amplifiers for the M-IX gun director under contract to George Philbrick of MIT by developing a circuit that today is called an operational amplifier. Julie returned to school earning an MS in math from New York University in 1954. In 1956, he founded Julie Research Laboratories to make calibration standards and precision components.
Kahng, Dawon (1931 - 1992)
Born in Seoul, South Korea, Kahng earned his PhD in electrical engineering from Ohio State University and joined Bell Labs in 1959, working under M. M. Atalla, who assigned him the task of fabricating a field-effect transistor using silicon. Together they built the first metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor structure in 1960, announcing their achievement at the IRE Solid-State Device Research Conference that year. In 1961, Kahng authored a Bell Labs technical memorandum about this device and was later awarded a patent on it. Since then, the MOS transistor has become the principal active component of most integrated circuits; millions of them can be found on every silicon microchip made today. Kahng remained at Bell Labs until his retirement in 1988. He made important contributions to the invention of flash memory.
Joel A. Karp was born in Chelsea, MA on July 30, 1940. After graduating with an MS from MIT in 1966, he took a job at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory (now Charles Stark Draper Labs) working on the electronics for inertial guidance systems for the US Navy and in 1966 he was recruited to General Microelectronics. He joined Intel in 1968 as its first MOS chip designer, concentrating on memories and developing the first DRAMs. Leaving Intel in 1973, he worked for a short time at Intersil, and then formed a DRAM design consultancy with former Intel colleague, John Reed.. He was a founder and CEO of semiconductor startup Visic in 1983 and later worked for Samsung Electronics (Senior Vice President) and Rambus (VP of Intellectual Property).
Lionel Kattner graduated from Southwestern University in Texas with a degree in chemistry, physics and math. On graduation he went to work at the Hanford, Washington plant on the production of plutonium for nuclear weapons and later served as a nuclear officer in the US Navy. In 1958 he joined Texas Instruments in Dallas and worked as a product engineer on a germanium mesa transistor product line. In 1960 Kattner was recruited into Jay Last's microelectronics group at Fairchild Semiconductor where he contributed to the development of the first planar integrated circuit. With three other Fairchild employees, in 1961 he founded Signetics Corporation.
Keck, Paul. H.
Paul H. Keck moved to the United States after World War II under Project Paperclip that recruited scientists from formerly Nazi occupied countries. He worked with Marcel J. E. Golay at the U. S. Army Signal Corps, Fort Monmouth, NJ where in 1953-54 they developed floating zone techniques for high-purity refining of silicon. As an expert in photoconductivity he worked on a selenium-based process that was acquired by a new company called Haloid (later renamed Xerox). He declined an offer to join to Haloid because "the company was too small!"
Kelly, Mervin J. (14 February 1894 - 18 March 1971)
Born in Missouri, Kelly received degrees from the Missouri School of Mines and the University of Kentucky before earning his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago, where he worked with Robert Millikan. Shortly thereafter, he joined the Western Electric Company and began working in Bell Telephone Laboratories when it was organized in 1925. He eventually rose through the ranks to lead Bell Labs in its most productive, successful years. Kelly was named head of vacuum tube development in 1928, and in 1936 became director of research, hiring William Shockley that year and suggesting he work on solid-state devices. During the War he headed Bell Labs and Western Electric efforts on radar research and development. After the War he stepped up as Executive Vice President, encouraging Shockley to organize a solid-state physics department. Out of this department emerged the point-contact and junction transistors, which utterly transformed the electronics industry. Kelly became President of Bell Labs in 1951, serving in that capacity until the end of 1958. As the administrator of a major high-technology enterprise, he is best known for his enlightened management philosophy, by which top scientists and engineers were encouraged to pursue basic research, as long as it had potential application to the production of useful goods and services.
Robert E. Kerwin was born in Wallaston, MA in 1932 and earned a BS from Boston College in 1954, and MS from MIT in 1958 and PhD in Chemistry from the University of Pittsburg in 1964. He served as Junior Fellow in Polymer Science at the Mellon Institute from 1958 to 1964 when he joined Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ. As a member of the Technical Staff at Bell Telephone Laboratories from 1958 to 1967 he worked with Robert Kerwin and John Sarace on a self-aligned gate MOS technology that when applied to ICs became known as the silicon-gate process
Kilby, Jack St. Clair (November 8, 1923 - June 20, 2005)
Born in Missouri, Jack Kilby was raised in Great Bend, Kansas. In 1950 he earned a master's degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin, while simultaneously working at Centralab in Milwaukee. He joined Texas Instruments in 1958 where in September of that year he built the first electronic circuit in which all of the components, both active and passive, were fabricated in a single piece of semiconductor material. Later Kilby co-invented a hand-held calculator and a thermal printer used in portable data terminals and received more than 60 patents. He officially retired from TI in the 1980s but maintained a significant involvement with the company for many years. He received the National Medal of Science (1970), the Kyoto Prize (1993), and the Nobel Prize for Physics (2000) for his contribution to the invention of the integrated circuit.
Born in 1930 in Brooklyn, NY, Donald L. Klein earned a BS from Polytechnic University in 1952. On graduating he worked at Sylvania Electric Products before attending the University of Connecticut where he was awarded an MS and a PhD degree in Chemistry in 1959. As a member of the Technical Staff at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ from 1958 to 1967 he worked with Robert Kerwin and John Sarace on a self-aligned gate MOS technology that when applied to ICs became known as the silicon-gate process. He joined the IBM, Data Systems Division as a Senior Chemist in 1967.
Tom Klein joined Mullard, the British subsidiary of Philips in 1960. He moved to the Fairchild R&D Laboratory, Palo Alto in 1966 where with Federico Faggin he demonstrated the commercial feasibility of Silicon Gate MOS integrated circuit technology. He joined National Semiconductor in 1970 and worked there until 1984 when he left to co-found Sierra Semiconductor (subsequently PMC-Sierra). After retiring in 1992 he served as a board member of Summit Microelectronics.
Kleiner, Eugene (May 12, 1923 - November 20, 2003)
Born in Austria, Eugene Kliener's family moved to New York in 1940. After serving in the army he earned a BS in mechanical engineering from the Polytechnic University of New York in 1948 and an MS from New York University. He joined Western Electric, the manufacturing arm of AT&T and in 1956 was recruited by William Shockley as one of the first employees at Shockley Semiconductor. As a member of the "Traitorous Eight" founders of Fairchild Semiconductor, Kleiner was responsible for initiating contact with Hayden Stone financier Arthur Rock. In 1972 he joined with Hewlett-Packard veteran Tom Perkins to found venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins in Menlo Park, CA.
After completing a PhD at Stanford University, James Koford worked for an IBM Design Automation group in New York where he headed a CAD project using a graphics display terminal to design mask patterns for SLT hybrid circuit logic modules used in System 360 computers. In 1966 he was hired by Hugh Mays, manager of CAD at Fairchild R&D, Palo Alto, CA, to work on simulation and automatic layout of integrated circuits. After Fairchild closed the ASIC operation, Koford managed the Boeing Computer Services Data Communications Lab in Sunnyvale before joining LSI Logic in 1981 where he developed the company's CAD tools. He co-founded EDA start-up Monterey Design Systems in 1996.
Norman Krim earned a BSEE at MIT in 1934. A student of Raytheon founder Vannevar Bush at MIT, in 1935 he took a job with his mentor's company as an engineer where he developed subminiature tubes for hearing aids for which he received six patents. After service in World War II he returned to Raytheon and rose to the position of vice-president of the Receiving Tube Division in Newton Massachusetts. After visiting Bell Laboratories to view the transistor, Krim initiated a six-month crash program to introduce the first commercially available transistor, the CK703 in 1948. Raytheon became the world's largest manufacturer of transistors from 1952-55. Krim's 1953 introduction of the CK 722 germanium junction transistor to the hobbyist market established wide public interest in semiconductor technology. From 1961- 63 he served as CEO of the Radio Shack chain of home electronics stores.
Walter F. Krolikowski earned a BS from MIT in 1961 and a PhD from Stanford University in 1969. He designed MOS memory devices for Cogar Corporation before joining IBM, Hopewell Junction NY where he worked on semiconductor process technology in the mid-1970s.
Lark-Horovitz, Karl (1892 - 1958)
Karl Lark-Horovitz was born Karl Horovitz in Vienna, Austria. He entered the University of Vienna in 1911. Delayed by wartime service, he received a PhD in physics in 1919. As one of the first traveling fellows of the International Education Board (Rockefeller Foundation) he came to Canada and the United States in 1925 where he accepted a permanent position at Purdue University in 1928. On being appointed head of the Department of Physics in 1930 he supported extensive research in the fields of electronics and nuclear physics. Under his guidance Purdue pursued pioneering work in the use of high-purity germanium material for use in point-contact crystal rectifiers for wartime radar applications. Lark-Horovitz remained at Purdue until his death in April 1958.
Last, Jay T.
Born in Pennsylvania, Last earned a bachelor's degree in optics from the University of Rochester and his Ph.D. in physics from MIT, after which he joined the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in 1956. Together with seven colleagues, he departed in September 1957 to found Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in Palo Alto, CA - the first company to manufacture silicon mesa transistors and planar integrated circuits. With Robert Noyce, Last built the first step-and-repeat camera in 1958 and used it to define transistor features photographically, in a process known as photolithography. From 1959 to 1961, he headed a team that developed the first commercial integrated circuits based on the planar processing technology developed by Jean Hoerni. In February 1961 Last and Hoerni left Fairchild to found the Amelco division of Teledyne, Inc., with the goal of manufacturing integrated circuits. He remained with Teledyne until his retirement. Last also founded and managed the Hillcrest Press.
Jay W. Lathrop was born in Bangor, ME in 1927 and grew up in Orono, Maine. He received the BS, MS, and PhD degrees in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1952 he joined the National Bureau of Standards that later became the Army's Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory. There, together with James Nall, he worked on the microminiaturization of solid-state circuits for the Department of Defense. In 1947 they presented the first paper on using photographic techniques in the fabrication of transistors and coined the term 'photolithography' to describe the process. In 1958 Lathrop joined Texas Instruments in Dallas, TX where he worked on integrated circuits with Jack Kilby. He joined Clemson University as a professor of electrical engineering in 1968. During the 1970s he co-invented (with Kilby) the solar chemical converter system of energy conversion.
Lee, Charles A.
An engineer at Bell Labs during the 1950s, Lee fabricated the first diffused-base transistor in late 1954, using the semiconductor material germanium. The emitter in this transistor was alloyed into an impurity layer initially diffused into the surface. Working at over 100 MHz, it was the highest-frequency transistor then operating.
Kurt Lehovec was born on June 12, 1918 in Ledvice, Bohemia (Czechoslovakia). He received a PhD Physics from the University of Prague in 1941 and was drafted into the German army to fight in Russia in World War II. Based on his work on solar cells, in 1947 the Signal Corps invited Lehovec to move to the US under Project Paperclip for scientists from the former Nazi-occupied territories. To establish the company in the transistor field, he joined Sprague Electric in Western Massachusetts. After successfully defending his patent on PN junction isolation against a challenge from Texas Instruments, he moved California in 1968 where he worked first as a consultant and in 1972 became a professor at the University of Southern California. He retired in 1988.
Lilienfeld, Julius E. (April 18, 1882 - 28 August, 1963)
Julius Edgar Lilienfeld was born on in Lemberg in the Ukraine, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1905 he graduated with a PhD in Physics from Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Berlin and joined the joined the Physics Institute of the University of Leipzig where he worked on x-ray tubes and with Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin on hydrogen-filled dirigibles. Lilienfeld traveled to the United States in 1921 to lecture and to pursue patent claims relating to his x-ray work. He moved to the US permanently in 1926 and in 1928 joined Amrad, Inc., a manufacturer of radios in Malden, Massachusetts. His work on the electrochemistry of anodic aluminum oxide films pioneered the development of electrolytic capacitors. During this time he also filed several patents on concepts relating to field-effect transistors. He died while living in the Virgin Islands at the age of 82.
Little, John B.
A mechanical engineer who joined the Bell Labs device development department in 1948, Little worked with chemist Gordon Teal to build the original crystal-growing apparatus used by Teal and his coworkers to pull large single crystals of germanium from the molten element. Such crystals were crucial to the successful development of the transistor during the early 1950s.
Lin, H. C.
Hung Chang Lin received a BS in electrical engineering from Chiaontung University, Shanghai, China, in 1941, an MS from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor in 1948, and a PhD in Electrical Engineering from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Brooklyn, N. Y in 1956. From 1941 to 46 he worked in China in the Central Broadcasting Administration. From 1948 to 1956 he engaged in transistor work as a Research Engineer at RCA Laboratories. In 1956 he joined the Hytron Division of the Columbia Broadcasting System where he worked as Manager of the Semiconductor Applications Laboratory. In 1959 he joined the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Baltimore. MD working on integrated circuits as Advisory Engineer at the Research and Development Laboratory and Manager of Advanced Development at the Molecular Electronics Division. He was a visiting lecturer at the University of California, Berkeley and a professor at the University of Maryland, College Park. He held 35 U. S. patents, authored the book Integrated Electronics and wrote more than 50 technical articles.
Robert Lipp worked for National Semiconductor in Santa Clara CA in 1972 designing custom MOS circuits. Later that year he joined Micropower to design CMOS watch chips. In 1974 he designed a 100-gate CMOS gate array for Frank Deverse and Charlie Allen of Integrated Microelectronics. Shortly after, he founded California Devices Inc. to build CMOS gate arrays, which were licensed to LSI Logic and Wang in the early 1980s, where in 1983 he designed what he believed was the first Sea-of-Gates architecture gate array. The company closed on 1989. Lipp served as VP of technology development at the GateField programmable logic division of Zycad in Fremont, CA in the mid-1990s.
Thomas A. Longo earned a PhD in Physics from Purdue University in 1957. He started work at a General Telephone lab in Chicago and transferred to Massachusetts in 1960 to head semiconductor device research after the company acquired Sylvania Electric where he worked on high-speed transistors, solutions to the problem of purple plague on bonding wires, and developed the SUHL TTL family of logic circuits. To move the company into integrated circuits, Longo joined Transitron in 1964 and become general manager before leaving for Fairchild Semiconductor in 1970 where he was vice-president responsible for bipolar and later MOS products. He founded Performance Semiconductor in 1984 to develop high-speed CMOS RAMs and microprocessors.
Losev, Oleg (May 10, 1903 - January 22, 1942)
Oleg Vladimirovich Losev was born into a high-ranking family in Tver, Russia and served as a captain in the Czarist Army. During his career he was associated with the Nizhniy-Novgorod Radio Laboratory (NRL), Central Radio Laboratory (TSRL, Leningrad), Leningrad Physicotechnical Institute, and the First Leningrad Medical Institute. He worked with semiconductor rectifying crystals for radio detectors and reported on light emitting diode phenomena in 1927 when he filed a patent for a "light relay" for telegraphic and telephone communication that foreshadowed later optoelectronics applications. Losev died during the siege of Leningrad (St. Petersburg) at the age of 39.
After earning a PhD from Tohoku University in the northern Japanese city of Sendai in 1971, Fujio Masuoka joined Toshiba where as a mid-level factory manager he led a team of four engineers who developed the FLASH form of EEPROM technology for which he filed a patent in 1980. He was promoted to head one of Toshiba's advanced research labs but left after a disagreement with the company to become a professor at Tohoku University in 1994. He sued the company in 2004 for a share of its profits from his invention and won a one-time cash payment. With Prof Masuoka as chief technology officer, in 2007 Unisantis Electronics (Japan) Ltd. and the Institute of Microelectronics (IME) of Singapore announced a collaborative research agreement to develop a three-dimensional transistor structure known as the Surrounding Gate Transistor (SGT).
Born in Germany of Belgian parents, Mataré earned a doctorate in physics in 1942 from the Technical University of Berlin. During World War II, he worked in the German radar program, developing crystal rectifiers using silicon and germanium. After the War he and physicist Heinrich Welker worked at a Westinghouse subsidiary in the Paris suburbs to manufacture germanium diodes for military and telecommunications applications. In mid-1948, after studying curious effects he had observed earlier, he and Welker fabricated a three-terminal point-contact amplifier based on germanium. Closely analogous to Bardeen and Brattain's point-contact transistor but invented independently, it was dubbed the "transistron" and announced in May 1949. The company soon began manufacturing and selling these devices in quantity. Mataré left Paris and returned to Germany in 1952 to found a new company called Intermetall in Düsseldorf. After this company was sold to the Clevite Corporation, he moved to the United States and worked in the U.S. semiconductor industry.
Hugh C. Mays earned a PhD from Stanford University and joined IBM in New York State where he worked with a James Koford a colleague from Stanford. He returned to California to the Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Laboratory, Palo Alto in July 1966 to manage a group developing computer software to help design and manufacture integrated circuits. He recruited Koford and Ed Jones to develop simulation and automatic layout tools for the Micromatrix and Micromosaic families of semicustom integrated circuits. On leaving Fairchild in 1973, Mays attended the California School of Professional Psychology (CSPP) at Alliant International University, San Diego and on graduating entered private practice.
Stanley Mazor was born in Chicago, IL in 1941 and earned a BS in mathematics and programming from San Francisco State University in 1964. He worked in the digital systems department of the Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Laboratory, Palo Alto until 1969 when he was hired by Ted Hoff at Intel to develop architecture specifications for the 4004 and 8008 microprocessors. Mazor held a variety of positions including Applications Support Engineer for European Operations and supervisor of Intel's microcomputer training development group. From 1984 to 1988 he was Director of Customer Engineering Services at Silicon Compiler Systems (SCS). In 1988 he joined Synopsys as Technical Training Manager and in 1996 became Director of Training at BEA Systems, Inc. Honors include election to the Inventor's Hall of Fame and the Kyoto Prize.
McNeilly, Michael (1939 - 2005)
Michael A. McNeilly co-founded Apogee Chemicals, Inc. in 1964 to provide the semiconductor industry with chemicals and delivery systems. With a $7,500 loan from his father-in-law, he led a group of technologists in founding Applied Materials Technology, Inc. in 1967. During his tenure as CEO at Applied, he was named on over 20 patents and was the co-recipient of the first SEMI award for "Outstanding Contributions to the Semiconductor Industry." In his later career he founded 14 high technology companies and served on the board of directors of more than 30 companies.
Carver A. Mead was born in 1934, in Bakersfield, California. He studied electrical engineering at California Institute of Technology (Caltech), earning a BS (1956), MS (1957) and PhD (1960) and joined the faculty in 1958, becoming a full professor in 1967. He taught at Caltech for over 40 years where he is the Gordon and Betty Moore professor emeritus. His relationship with Gordon Moore and other founders of Fairchild Semiconductor led to consulting assignments with many early stage Silicon Valley companies. In 1979 he co-authored Introduction to VLSI Systems with Lynn Conway of Xerox PARC and supported academic participation in the resulting MOSIS [Metal Oxide Semiconductor Implementation Service] program. Mead has received numerous awards and honors, including the National Medal of Technology, related to his contributions in pioneering the automation, methodology and teaching of integrated circuit design.
Gordon E. Moore was born in 1929 and spent his childhood near San Francisco, California. He earned a PhD in Chemistry and Physics from the California Institute of Technology. He joined Shockley Semiconductor in 1956 and with Robert Noyce and others he founded Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in 1957. As head of R&D at Fairchild in 1965 he is best known for "Moore's Law," in which he predicted that the number of transistors the industry would be able to place on a computer chip would double every year. In 1968 Moore co-founded Intel Corporation with Robert Noyce where he served as Executive Vice President until 1975 when he became President and Chief Executive Officer. In 1979, Moore became Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, holding that position until 1987, when he became Chairman of the Board. He was named Chairman Emeritus of Intel in 1997. Moore and his wife established the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation in 2000 to fund projects aimed at improving the quality of life for future generations.
Morton, Jack (September 4, 1913 - December 11, 1971)
Born in St. Louis, Missouri, Jack A. Morton earned his bachelor's and master's degrees in electrical engineering from Wayne University and the University of Michigan before joining Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1936. He worked there on the development of vacuum tubes and radar systems during and after World War II. In 1948 Mervin Kelly named him to organize and head a new team developing the point-contact (and later the junction) transistor into a robust, reliable, manufactureable device. Under Morton's astute, forceful leadership the Labs developed many of the underlying technologies - such as zone refining, crystal growing, and silicon diffusion - that made reliable, high-performance transistors possible. In March 1955, recognizing its superiority over germanium, he decided to pursue silicon as the semiconductor material of choice in the Bell Telephone System. It proved the correct decision. In 1958 Morton became Vice President of device development at Bell Labs. During his tenure, the Labs pioneered such new technologies as thin-film circuitry, bubble memories and charge-coupled devices (CCD's). But Morton was also responsible for its initial lack of interest in integrated circuits and MOS transistors. He died in December 1971 after a barroom struggle with two men.
Mott, Nevill (1905-1996)
Nevill Francis Mott was born in Leeds, UK, on September 30th, 1905. He studied mathematics and theoretical physics St. John's College, Cambridge and in 1933 occupied the chair of theoretical physics at Bristol University where he studied the properties of metals and semiconductors, including the theory of transition metals and of rectification. After military research in London during the war, he became head of the physics department at Bristol. In 1954 he was appointed the Cavendish Professor of Physics at Cambridge University, a post that he held till 1971. He served on numerous government and university committees and was knighted in 1962. Mott received numerous awards and honors, including the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physics for a lifetime of research into the magnetic and electrical properties of non-crystalline solids.
Mueller, Charles (1912 - 2005)
Charles W. Mueller studied electrical engineering at Notre Dame and received an MSEE and a PhD in physics from MIT in 1942. On graduating he took a position with RCA's tube department in Harrison, New Jersey where he was involved in solid-state technology and the early development and full-scale production of the alloy transistor. At the RCA Laboratories in Princeton, NJ, he made important contributions to the development of RCA MOS transistor and MOS integrated circuits, the silicon vidicon, the storage tube, the tunnel diode, and SOS (Silicon on Sapphire) technology. From 1965 to 1971 Mueller served as head of the Silicon Devices Group and retired as a Fellow of the RCA Technical Staff, Process and Applied Materials Research Laboratory in 1977. He was a recipient of three RCA Laboratories Outstanding Achievement Awards
While earning his BS, MS, and PhD degrees at the University of California, Berkeley, Laurence W. Nagel developed the SPICE circuit simulation program with direction from his research adviser Donald Pederson. When released into the public domain in 1972 as SPICE 1, it launched a cottage industry of SPICE simulation tools. On graduating, Nagel began a 20 year career at Bell Laboratories which included developing the ADVICE circuit simulation program; designing analog circuits for submicron NMOS processes; and working in the AT&T Intellectual Property Division on assertion of patents and of patent licenses. He joined Anadigics, Inc. in 1995, where he worked on supporting simulation of RF integrated circuits. In 1998, Nagel founded his own company, Omega Enterprises, to offer consulting services in analog and RF integrated circuit design.
While at the National Bureau of Standards/Harry Diamond Laboratories (also known as DOFL - Diamond Ordnance Fuse Laboratories), James R. Nall worked together with Jay Lathrop on the microminiaturization of solid-state circuits for the Department of Defense. In 1959 Nall joined Fairchild Semiconductor in Mountain View where he worked in the team led by Jay Last which developed the Micrologic family of planar integrated circuits. Based on his pioneering experience with photolithography at DOFL, Nall made important contributions to the project including significant improvements in the step and repeat control of mask alignment equipment. In 1962 he co-found Molectro with Fairchild colleague D. Spittlehouse.
Jan A. Narud graduated with a PhD in electrical engineering and physics from Stanford University in 1954. He taught engineering physics at Harvard before moving to the IBM Research Labs at Yorktown Heights, NY for five years. In 1961 he was hired by Lester Hogan as Director of the Integrated Circuit Research & Development Department at the new Motorola Semiconductor Products Division in Phoenix, AZ. He established Motorola as a leader in Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) circuits for high-speed computing applications. Narud joined the University of California to pursue semiconductor technology research in 1970. He retired in 1988.
Newton, Richard (July 1, 1951 - January 2, 2007)
A. Richard Newton was born in Melbourne, Australia where he received BS (1973) and MS (1975) degrees from the University of Melbourne. He worked with Donald Pederson, UC Berkeley professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences, on an enhancing Larry Nagle's version of SPICE and he became a major force behind the project when he joined Pederson at Berkeley in 1975. He earned a PhD in electrical engineering and computer science from Berkeley in 1978 and was appointed to the engineering faculty later that year. In 1985, he was promoted to full professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. Newton served as chair of the department from 1999 to 2000 and was dean of the College of Engineering and the Roy W. Carlson Professor of Engineering from 2000 until his death. In addition to his academic role, Newton played an active role in industry by helping to found a number of design technology companies including SDA Systems (now Cadence Design Systems), Synopsys, PIE Design Systems (now part of Cadence), Simplex Solutions and Crossbow.
Robert (Bob) Norman graduated from Oklahoma A&M University in 1954 with a BS in electronic engineering and math. In his undergraduate year he worked for the Sperry Gyroscope Advanced Weapon Systems Department on the application of transistors to computer design where he first conceived the idea of using transistors for memory storage. He joined the company full time in 1957. In 1959 Vic Grinich hired Norman to head up the device evaluation section at Fairchild Semiconductor in Mountain View, CA where he designed the DCTL circuit configuration for Fairchild Micrologic the first planar IC family. He co-founded two early MOS companies, General Microelectronics in 1963 and Nortec Electronics in 1968.
Noyce, Robert (December 12, 1927 - June 3, 1990)
Robert N. Noyce was born in Burlington, Iowa and grew up in Grinnell, Iowa. A physics major at Grinnell College, he graduated with a PhD in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1953. William Shockley hired him from Philco Corporation to work at Shockley Semiconductor Laboratories in 1956. With eight other employees he left to found Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in 1957. As general manager of the Fairchild semiconductor operation and a vice president of Fairchild Camera and Instrument, he presided over a decade of innovation in semiconductor technology including co-invention of the integrated circuit. In 1968 Noyce co-founded Intel Corporation with Gordon Moore where he served as President until 1975 when he became Chairman of the Board. He spent much of his later career working to improve the international competitiveness of American industry, including founding and later becoming chairman of the Semiconductor Industry Association. In 1988 Noyce took charge of Sematech, a consortium of semiconductor manufacturers working together and with the United States government. He held 16 patents on semiconductor methods, devices, and structures and numerous awards and honors including the National Medal of Science.
Ohl, Russell (1898 -1987)
An electrochemist at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Russell S. Ohl is generally credited with the discovery of the p-n junction during experiments he was performing on silicon in February 1940. He earned his bachelor's degree from Pennsylvania State University and joined Bell Labs in 1927, working at its communications laboratory in Holmdel, New Jersey. During the late 1930s, while developing detectors for short-wave and microwave communications, he began to pursue crystal rectifiers fabricated with silicon as the best available alternative. On 23 February 1940, he discovered that light from an incandescent bulb could induce a current to flow through a particular silicon sample that had a small seam running across it. This photovoltaic effect was soon attributed to the voltage stimulated by light hitting this seam, which was an interface between p-type and n-type regions in the silicon.
Robert B. Palmer was born in 1940. He majored in math and physics at Texas Tech University and began his career at the Texas Instruments Semiconductor Research and Development Labs in 1967. Palmer was one of group of TI employees who founded Mostek Corporation in 1969. When United Technologies Corporation (UTC) acquired Mostek Corporation in 1980 he became Executive Vice President of Semiconductor Operations. In 1985 Palmer joined Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) where he served in various executive positions until being appointed as Chief Executive Officer and President in October 1992. After his retirement in 1998, Palmer served on several boards including Advanced Mocro devices (AMD).
William N. Papian was a graduate student of Jay Forrester who, together with Kenneth Olsen (founder of Digital Equipment Corporation), worked on core memory systems for the Whirlwind computer project at MIT in the late 1940s. He led the team at the Advanced Development Group of MIT Lincoln Labs in Lexington, Massachusetts that developed the TX-0 (Transistor Experimental) machine in 1956 and later supported pioneering work by Wesley Clark on an early small Laboratory Instrument Computer (LINC).
Pauli, Wolfgang (April 25th, 1900 - December 15th, 1958)
Wolfgang Pauli was born on in Vienna. He studied at the University of Munich where he obtained a doctor's degree in 1921 after which he worked as an assistant to Max Born at the University of Gõttingen and then for Niels Bohr at Copenhagen. In 1923-1928 he became a lecturer at the University of Hamburg followed by an appointment as Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. In the period 1935-1945 he was visiting Professor at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ and held similar appointments at the University of Michigan and Purdue University before returning to Zurich at the end of World War II. Pauli was one of the most brilliant minds of 20th century physics and helped to lay the foundations of the quantum theory of fields.
Born and raised in Oregon, Gerald L Pearson earned a doctorate in physics at Stanford University and joined Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1929. He joined Shockley's solid-state physics group at Bell Telephone Laboratories after World War II, sharing a laboratory with Walter Brattain and performing early experiments on field-effect transistors. Following that he researched the semiconductor properties of silicon with John Bardeen. With Daryl Chapin and Calvin Fuller, he developed the Solar Battery, a large-area photovoltaic cell made by diffusing boron into silicon. In later years he served as a professor of applied physics at Stanford University.
Pederson, Donald (September 30, 1925 - December 25, 2004)
Donald O. Pederson was born in Hallock, MN and earned a BSEE from North Dakota Agricultural College (now North Dakota State University) in 1948 and an MS (1949) and PhD (1951) from Stanford University. From 1953 to 1955, he worked at Bell Telephone Laboratories, in Murray Hill, New Jersey. Pederson joined the faculty of the department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences of the University of California, Berkeley as an assistant professor of electrical engineering in 1955 where he supervised the work of Richard Newton and others on the SPICE circuit simulation program. Before his retirement in 1991, his research was reported in more than 100 technical publications.
Douglas Peltzer earned an MS in physics from New Mexico State University and joined the General Electric computer laboratory in Sunnyvale, CA in 1964. He moved to the Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Laboratory, Palo Alto in 1967 where his work on thin epitaxial layers led to the Isoplanar oxide-isolation process and an important business in high-speed bipolar memory devices for the company. In 1983 Peltzer became vice president for technology at Trilogy Systems, a computer company based on wafer-scale integration started by Gene Amdahl. He left in 1985 to found Tactical Fabs and later moved to Fort Lauderdale, FL where he consulted in semiconductor technology.
George Perlegos emigrated with his family from Tripolis, Greece in 1962. He earned a BS from San Jose State University and a PhD in electrical engineering from Stanford. He spent eight years with Intel Corporation where he designed the first n-channel EPROM, and the industry's first 5-volt EEPROM and as a co-founder of SEEQ Technology, Inc. 1981, the first in-system programmable EEPROM. Perlegos started Atmel Corporation in 1984 where he served as President, CEO and Chairman until 2007.
William G. Pfann was born in New York City and earned a BS in chemical engineering from Cooper Union School of Engineering in 1940. Beginning as technician in the chemistry department, he was a member of the technical staff at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, NJ from 1935 until his retirement in 1982. Pfann made a series of important contributions to the development of early point-contact and junction transistors. Most noteworthy among them was the zone-refining technique by which impurities in germanium could be reduced to less than one part per billion. Pfann held 65 patents on zone melting, semiconductor devices, and crystal growth techniques and was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. He died in 1982.
George Arthur Philbrick graduated from the School of Engineering at Harvard University in 1935. Working with Clesson E. Mason at the Foxboro Company in 1937-38, he developed a mathematical analysis of process control and built an electronic analog computer hardwired to carry out a computation, or simulation, of a typical process-control loop. After World War II, he built a high-speed analog computer that led to the founding of George A. Philbrick Researches (GAP/R) in Boston, MA in 1946. In 1952, his company introduced the first commercial full-differential, operational amplifier, the vacuum-tube based K2-W, derived from the work of Loebe Julie at Columbia University. He died circa 1974.
Charles E. Phipps received a BSEE from Case Institute of Technology (1949) and an MBA from Harvard University (1952). He joined the Military Engineering Dept of Motorola, Chicago in 1953 and in 1957 moved to Texas Instruments, Dallas where he spent the next 30 years of his career. His early roles at TI included working with Jack Kilby to develop market opportunities for integrated circuit technology and managing the department that evolved into the MOS business unit. Phipps was elected an officer of the corporation in 1976 and from 1982 to 1986 he served as vice president of Market Development for the Semiconductor Group. He joined venture capital firm Sevin Rosen Funds as a General Partner in 1987. He was appointed emeritus partner in 2008 and is currently on the visiting committee for the Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, and the advisory board for the Business School, University of Wisconsin.
Pickard, Greenleaf. (February 14, 1877 - January 8, 1956)
Greenleaf Whittier Pickard was born in Portland ME and attended the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard University and took classes at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He worked for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company from 1902 to 1906 where he tested a large number of minerals in an effort to discover the most effective contact detector of radio waves. With two associates Pickard organized the Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company in 1907 to market his patented detectors, one of which was called Perikon, an acronym for "perfect Pickard contact." During World War I, he investigated ways to mitigate static interference at a Navy radio installation at Otter Cliffs, ME and continued to investigate propagation of radio waves and served as a consultant to the Radio Corporation of America and other clients during the 1930's.
(August 10, 1884 - June 5, 1976)
Robert Wichard Pohl was born in Hamburg, Germany. He began his study of physics at the Ruprecht-Karls University of Heidelberg and earned a PhD in Berlin in 1906. After research into x-rays and radio systems he joined the faculty of the University of Goettingen in 1920 and remained until his retirement in 1952. In 1938, together with Rudolf Hilsch, he observed low frequency amplification in semiconductor material.
Proebsting, Robert (Aug. 5, 1937 - June 4, 2007)
Robert Proebsting was born in Chicago, IL. He received a BA in physics and math from Knox College in Illinois and an MS and PhD in physics from the University of Wisconsin in 1967. At Texas Instruments in Dallas he designed DRAM chips before co-founding Mostek in 1969 where he developed an address multiplexing scheme that established the company's 4096 X 1 bit DRAM as an industry standard in 1973. After moving to California in 1987 he was assistant vice president of research and development for the semiconductor memory division at Hyundai Electronics America, senior staff scientist for processor and memory products at Fairchild Semiconductor/Intergraph, and in 1996 joined IDT as Vice President of Advanced Design Concepts.
Lippincott J. Ralls of the firm of Lippincott Ralls & Alvin Hendricson of San Francisco, CA was an outside attorney who worked with the founders of Fairchild Semiconductor to write patent documents on their early technology inventions, including Jean Hoerni's planar process. Robert Noyce credits John Ralls with "throwing out the challenge as to what could be done with it" as stimulating his "Semiconductor device-and-lead structure" integrated circuit patent. He died in the mid-1960s.
William "Bill" M. Regitz worked at Bell Telephone Labs for 7 years before joining the Computer Control Division of Honeywell in Framingham, MA in 1968. In 1969 he initiated a joint development project with Intel Corporation to design the 1102 three transistor cell DRAM, the company's first 1024-bit DRAM. Enhancements to the 1102 yielded the highly successful 1103 device. Regitz joined Intel in 1971 where he contributed to numerous products including design of the 2107, Intel's first 4096-bit DRAM . He retired from Intel after 28 years with experience in positions from Engineering Manager to General Manager. He has written numerous papers and holds patents in the field of memory technology.
John A. Reed received BS and MS degrees in electrical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. After joining American Micro Systems in 1968 he subsequently worked for Intel, National Semiconductor, Burroughs, and co-founded VISIC, Inc, before starting his own consulting company in 1986. Throughout his engineering career his main focus was on DRAM design and architecture. At Intel his most significant contributions were to characterize, re-engineer, and improve the manufacturability of the 1103 DRAM and to design the 2102 1K SRAM.
Rice, Rex (1918 - 2004)
Rex Rice was born in Douglas, Arizona, and graduated from Stanford University in 1940 with a degree in mechanical engineering. He joined Douglas Aircraft and later Northrup Aircraft and conducted research in stress analysis of sloped-wing design. In 1955, Rice joined the IBM Research Laboratory in Poughkeepsie, New York, where he took part in the development of the first fully transistorized digital calculator. His expertise in high-level language computing led him to join the Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Laboratory, Palo Alto where he co-invented the dual-in-line package with Bryant "Buck" Rogers. Rice led the development of the semiconductor memory system for the Illiac IV computer that was delivered in 1971. He held 16 patents and received the W. Wallace McDowell Award of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE).
C. Sheldon Roberts was born in 1926 and earned a BS in metallurgical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY in 1948 followed by an MS and a Ph.D. from MIT. He conducted metallurgical research at the Naval Research Lab and the Dow Chemical Company and joined the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Mountain View, California in 1956. With Robert Noyce and others Roberts founded Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in 1957 where his primary focus was on silicon crystal production. He left with Jay Last to found Amelco Semiconductor, a division of Teledyne Inc. in 1961. Later Roberts consulted in materials and processes for the aerospace, electronic materials, metals, and microelectronics industries.
Rogers, Bryant "Buck"
Bryant ("Buck") Rogers joined Fairchild Semiconductor, Mountain View, CA from Photonics in Goleta, CA in the early 1960s. While in charge of the packaging department at Fairchild in 1965 he co-invented the 14-pin ceramic dual-in-line package (DIP) with Rex Rice. Later extended to multiple lead counts and materials, the DIP outline was the predominant form of integrated circuit packaging in the late 1960s and 70s. Rogers later managed a packaging plant for Fairchild in San Diego. .
Born and raised in England, Ian M. Ross earned his bachelor's, masters, and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Cambridge University. He joined the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1952 and worked on the development of semiconductor devices for the next decade. He was intimately involved in research efforts that led to epitaxial growth of silicon crystals in the early 1960s. Following that he rose through Bell Labs management to become its President from 1979 to 1991.
Born Beijing, China in 1932, Chih-Tang Sah received BS degrees in Electrical Engineering and Engineering Physics from the University of Illinois in 1953 and an MS (1954) and PhD (1956) from Stanford University. He joined Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in 1956, co-authoring an important 1957 paper on electron-hole recombination with Shockley and Robert Noyce. He joined Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in 1959, eventually heading a team that developed processes for manufacturing integrated circuits. In the mid-1960s, he organized a group that included Bruce Deal, Andy Grove and Ed Snow, which resolved the stability problems of the silicon-dioxide layer and made it possible to mass-produce MOS transistors and circuits. In the late 1960s he became professor of physics and electrical engineering at the University of Illinois and Graduate Research Professor at the University of Florida in 1988.
John C. Sarace earned a BS from the University of Michigan. He worked at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Harris Semiconductor, the David Sarnoff Research Center and Rockwell International. While at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, NJ, together with colleagues Robert Kerwin and Donald Klein, in 1967 he filed a patent for on a self-aligned gate MOS technology that when applied to ICs became known as the silicon-gate process.
Born in Tennessee, Jack H. Scaff earned his bachelor's degree in chemistry at the University of Michigan and joined the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1929, concentrating on materials research and metallurgy. With Russell Ohl and Henry Theurer during World War II, he developed the understanding of how to "dope" pure silicon and germanium with impurities to obtain n-type and p-type semiconductor materials. Working with William Pfann in the early 1950s, he also developed the zone-refining process for purifying germanium.
John D. Schmidt was hired by Gordon Moore from the General Electric Research Laboratory in Sunnyvale CA, to work on thin-film memory systems at Fairchild in 1964. Based on ideas he had explored at GE, Schmidt worked on an "Integrated MOS Transistor Random Access Memory" array and presented his pioneering work at an IEEE sponsored Computer Memory workshop in September 1964. He joined the Fairchild Memory Products business unit in 1965.
Schottky, Walter (July 23, 1886 - March 4, 1976)
Walter H. Schottky was born in Zurich, Switzerland but spent his life in Germany. He entered Humboldt University in Berlin in 1904 where in 1912 he was awarded a PhD in physics for a thesis on the Special Theory of Relativity. From 1915 to 1919 as a scientist at Siemens & Halske in Berlin, Schottky invented the screen grid tube, the tetrode and the superheterodyne receiver and described the theory of shot noise (Schottky effect). After teaching at the universities of Würzburg and Rostock, in 1927 Schottky returned to industrial research at Siemens & Halskein in Berlin and the Siemens-Schuckertwerke in Pretzfeld until his retirement in 1958. In 1938 he developed a theory that explained the rectifying behavior of a metal-semiconductor contact, the basis for the function of the Schottky-barrier diode. He received numerous awards during his lifetime.
As manager of Logic Circuit Development at Fairchild Semiconductor, Robert Seeds worked on the highly successful 930 Series DTL family in 1964 and developed the Complementary Transistor Logic (CTL) Family of high-speed circuits whose sales to Burroughs Corporation for the B2500/3500 computers contributed nearly 50% of Fairchild revenue in 1966. He died in an automobile accident in the early 1970s.
Seitz, Frederick (July 4, 1911 - March 2, 2008)
Frederick Seitz is one of a few theoretical physicists who pioneered the new discipline of solid-state physics in America during the 1930s and 1940s. Born in 1911 in San Francisco, he earned his bachelor's degree in physics at Stanford and his PhD at Princeton in 1935. In 1940 he published The Modern Theory of Solids, which became the leading textbook in the field. While teaching at the University of Pennsylvania during World War II, he worked as consultant to Dupont on its wartime efforts in purifying silicon - eventually obtaining purities of 99.999 percent. After the war he became professor of physics at the University of Illinois, where he hired John Bardeen away from Bell Labs. During the 1960s, Seitz stepped in as President of Rockefeller University and was also elected President of the National Academy of Science.
Michael J. Selser is joint patent holder with Boyd Watkins of an early filing on silicon-gate MOS technology for ICs that originated at General Microelectronic in the mid 1960s. He was later employed at Redwood MicroSystems, Inc. a manufacturer of MEMS (Micro- Electro Mechanical Systems) and a licensee of microvalve technology developed at Stanford University.
Mark Shepherd, Jr. was born in Dallas, TX in 1923 and earned a B.S. from Southern Methodist University in 1942 and an MS in Electrical Engineering from the University of Illinois in 1947. After service in the navy he joined Geophysical Service Inc., the predecessor to Texas Instruments, in Dallas in 1948. From Assistant Chief Engineer for Semiconductor Design Engineering he rose to Chairman of the Board in 1985 and served in this role until his retirement in 1988. He is credited with leading the development of transistor mass production and later integrated circuits that helped to make Texas Instruments one of the world's leading producers of semiconductors
Masatoshi Shima was born at Shizuoka in 1943. He received a BSc from the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University in 1967. In April 1967, he joined the computer division of Busicom Corporation where he designed a desktop calculator for implementation in MOS custom circuits. After Busicom accepted Intel's proposal for a single-chip CPU implementation of the project, in 1970 Shima-san traveled to the US to work with Federico Faggin on the 4004 microprocessor chip. In 1972 he returned to the US to join Intel where he worked with Faggin on the 8080 before following him to Zilog where he designed the Z80 and Z8000 processors. From 1979 to 1986 he ran a Japanese design center for Intel after which he formed his own design company V.M. Technology. He received a PhD from the University of Tsukuba in 1992 and in 2000, became a Professor at the University of Aizu.
John N. Shive was a physicist who worked on the early development of the transistor at Bell Telephone Laboratories in the late 1940s and early 1950s. He is best remembered for an experiment he performed in February 1948 that first demonstrated William Shockley's theoretical ideas about minority carrier injection in transistor operation.
Shockley, William (February 13, 1910 - August 12, 1989)
Born in London, England to American parents, William Bradford Shockley worked as a physicist at Bell Telephone Laboratories from 1936 until 1955, when he moved to California and established his own semiconductor company. In 1963 he became a professor of engineering and applied science at Stanford University, where he died in 1989. Raised in England and California, Shockley earned his bachelor's degree at the California Institute of Technology in 1932 and his Ph.D. in theoretical physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1936. At Bell Labs he worked on solid-state physics before turning to operations research during World War II. In 1945 he returned to Bell Labs and organized a new solid-state research group that included John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. Spurred by their invention of the point-contact transistor, he invented the junction transistor in January 1948; it proved to be more reliable and much easier to manufacture. He shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in physics for this invention with Bardeen and Brattain. That year also he started the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, attracting about a dozen top-notch scientists and engineers. Eight of them soon departed to found the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in nearby Palo Alto, where they developed the first commercial integrated circuits. After leaving for Stanford in 1963, he began to espouse controversial ideas on race and intelligence.
Ed Snow joined the Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Laboratory, Palo Alto in 1963 after graduating from the University of Utah with a PhD in solid state physics. Together with Bruce Deal, Andy Grove, and C.T. Sah, he was an important contributor to the early understanding of the properties of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures and is credited with identifying sodium as the major source of contamination while working on electron beam evaporation of aluminum. Ed Snow left in 1971 to co-found imaging company Reticon with Gene Weckler and John Rado where he worked until 1977.
Sparks, Morgan (July 6, 1916 - May 3, 2008)
Morgan Sparks was born and grew up in Pagosa Springs, Colorado and earned his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of Illinois in 1943, joining Bell Telephone Laboratories soon thereafter. In 1948 he transferred into Shockley's solid-state physics group and began working on junction-transistor research. With Gordon Teal, he developed techniques for making germanium grown-junction transistors during the process of growing single crystals of this material. Announced in July 1951, these were the first successful junction transistors. Sparks rose through the management ranks at Bell Labs during the 1950s and 1960s. In 1972 he became director of the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, which was then managed by AT&T. Sparks retired from the Bell system in 1981 to be dean of the Robert O. Anderson School of Management at the University of New Mexico.
Charles (Charlie) E. Sporck was born and raised in a small town in New York's Adirondack Mountains. He graduated from Cornell University with a BS in mechanical engineering in 1951 and went to work for General Electric Corporation. He joined Fairchild Semiconductor in Mountain View, CA as a production manager in 1959 and was rapidly promoted to operations manager followed by general manager in 1964. In 1967 he became CEO of National Semiconductor which he built-up from a small struggling company to a world leader in high-volume, low-cost production of integrated circuits by his retirement in 1991.
Thomas O. Stanley joined RCA in the company's Industry Service Laboratory in 1951 on graduating from Cornell University. After spending a year at Cambridge University in computer pioneer Maurice Wilkes's laboratory, Stanley returned to RCA Labs to serve as head of Integrated Electronics Research where he directed early work on MOS integrated circuits. In 1959 he was also appointed to head the Systems Research Laboratory where his group identified the concept of storing and retrieving information from a vinyl disc that was ultimately adapted for the RCA VideoDisc system. He was described by RCA Chairman Thornton Bradshaw as "a visionary who, not only foresaw the CED videodisc system long before its time, but provided the technical encouragement and management support necessary to bring that vision to a reality." In 1968, Stanley became director of the newly formed Consumer Electronics Laboratory and later was appointed Staff Vice President, Research Programs.
Karl-Ulrich Stein received his degree in engineering in 1961 and his doctor's degree in engineering (Dr-Ing.) in 1965 from the Technical University of Stuttgart, West Germany. In 1962 he joined Siemens, starting in Corporate R&D where he established the microelectronics activities rising to Research Section Head. In 1972 he gave a paper proposing a single transistor memory cell. After working as Head of Siemens Components Development, in 1981 he took over the responsibility for discrete semiconductor operations. Stein was appointed Head of Central Laboratories/Advanced Development Department of the Public Communication Networks Group in 1991.
Peter A. Stoll holds SB and SM degrees in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He first joined Intel in 1974. He also joined Intel in 1978 and again in 1987! His design engineering work included a watch chip, the circuit design of the 8085 microprocessor, and circuit design and logic simulation on the 8086 microprocessor. At Hewlett-Packard he designed high-speed GaAs logic circuits and at Daisy Systems he developed hardware/software logic simulation products. After 1988 Stoll worked in the Intel Alberque wafer fabrication plant in reliability, yield, and product engineering roles.
Raised in Pennsylvania, Raymond S. Stata received his SB and SM degrees in Electrical Engineering from MIT in 1957. He was founder of Solid State Instruments, then vice president of marketing of Kollmorgen Corp.'s Inland Controls Division (after it acquired Solid State Instruments). In 1965, Stata founded Analog Devices, Inc. with his former MIT roommate, Matthew Lorber. He served as senior vice president for marketing, sales and engineering at the company before assuming the position of president in 1971. He served as chairman and chief executive officer from 1973 to 1996. Stata is a Co-Founder and Chairman at Stata Laboratories Inc. and also serves as a Founder and Managing Partner at Stata Venture Partners.
Robert H. Swanson, a founder of Linear Technology Corporation, has served as Chief Executive Officer, President, and Executive Chairman and has been a director of the Company since its incorporation in September 1981. Before co-founding Linear Technology, Mr. Swanson held various positions at National Semiconductor Corporation, including Vice President and General Manager of the Linear Integrated Circuit Operation and Managing Director in Europe. Prior to that he worked at Fairchild Semiconductor and Transitron. Mr. Swanson holds a BS degree in Industrial Engineering from Northeastern University.
David V. Talbert graduated from Nebraska State University in 1957 with a BS in Electrical Engineering. He worked in the vacuum tube division of Westinghouse before joining Fairchild Semiconductor as a process engineer in the Micrologic integrated circuit manufacturing operation in 1962. He worked closely with design engineer Bob Widlar to optimize the company's digital process for linear circuits. Their collaboration produced several highly successful products including the 702 and 709 operational amplifiers and the 710 and 711 comparators. Talbert and Widlar left Fairchild to start a linear business unit at Molectro Science Corporation in 1966. The company was acquired by National Semiconductor in 1967 where he worked until he was killed in an automobile accident in 1989.
Tanenbaum is the physical chemist who fabricated some of the earliest silicon transistors at Bell Telephone Laboratories. He joined Bell Labs in 1952 after earning degrees in chemistry from Johns Hopkins and Princeton. In January 1954 he made the first silicon grown-junction transistor but did not pursue it further because the Labs considered diffusion a much better technology. In March 1955 he fabricated the first diffused-base silicon transistor with his technician D. E. Thomas, which heavily influenced Jack Morton's subsequent decision to concentrate further development efforts on silicon. During the 1960s and 1970s, Tanenbaum rose to become Executive Vice President of Bell Labs.
While working at Texas Instruments in 1962 engineer Yung Tao of Richardson, TX developed a 10-lead flat package configuration measuring 0.25" by 0.125" to dissipate heat and establish a standard size package for integrated circuits. He subsequently patented other semiconductor packaging methods.
Yasuro Tarui graduated from Waseda University Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan in 1951. He joined MITI's Electro-technical Laboratory (ETL) where he worked on many semiconductor device research projects. From 1976 to 1980 Tarui-san organized and directed the MITI VLSI industry consortium, the VLSI Technology Research Association, that developed the one-megabit DRAM device and gave Japanese manufacturers a significant lead in the memory market place for many years. In 1979 he joined the Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology.
Teal, Gordon (January 10, 1907 - January 7, 2003)
Gordon K. Teal is the physical chemist who pioneered the growth of large single crystals of silicon and germanium, which have been crucial to manufacturing semiconductor devices since the early 1950s. Born in Dallas, he earned a bachelor's degree from Baylor and his Ph.D. degree in chemistry from Brown University. He joined the Bell Labs chemical research department in 1930 and studied germanium crystal rectifiers during World War II. After the invention of the transistor, he worked with engineer John Little and technician Ernest Buehler to develop and perfect crystal-growing techniques for germanium and then silicon. He also did early research on epitaxial crystal growth. Teal left Bell Labs in December 1952 to join Texas Instruments as its first research director. Under his leadership, TI manufactured the first commercial silicon transistors in 1954.
Henry C Theurer was a chemist at Bell Telephone Laboratories who contributed to many of its major achievements in semiconductor materials processing. During World War II he worked with metallurgist Jack Scaff to develop a fundamental understanding of how to add impurities to pure silicon and germanium to produce n-type and p-type semiconductors. In 1955 he developed float-zone refining of silicon, an adaptation of the zone-refining technique of William Pfann. And in 1960 he led a team of Bell Labs researchers who first demonstrated how to grow ultrathin epitaxial layers of silicon on a crystalline substrate.
George H. Thiess served in the U. S. Air Force from 1951-55 and earned a BS in Engineering Physics in 1958. He worked as a research engineer at Sperry Microwave from 1958-60 and at Texas Instruments from 1960-66. As founder, president and chairman president of Electro/Data Inc. from 1966-71 he worked with Willy Crabtree to develop the first Hamilton Pulsar "Wrist Computer" electronic watch. Thiess served as president of the Chronex Watch Corporation from 1971-76 and Vice President of Electric Motor Cars Inc. from 1979-86.
Thomas, D. E.
D. E. Thomas served as a technician at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ during the 1950 and 1960s. He fabricated the first diffused-base silicon transistor with Morris Tanenbaum in 1954.
After graduating with a PhD in solid-state physics from the University of Utah in 1962, Frank Wanlass joined the Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Laboratory in Palo Alto in 1963. That same year he filed the first patent on a complementary MOS structure and noted, but did not pursue, the movement of charge through oxide onto a gate that is the basis of the EPROM device. He joined General Micro-electronics in 1964 where he helped establish the company as an early entrant in the MOS market before moving to General Instrument in 1965 where he developed MNOS EEPROM technology. Wanlass left GI in 1970 to found Nitron and subsequently joined Zytrex in 1983.
With a Master's degree from U.C. Berkeley, Boyd G. Watkins joined General Microelectronics in 1963. He described a polycrystalline, self-aligned silicon-gate process in an internal memo in 1965 that was proposed to the Air Force for an LSI project. A Canadian patent on the technology was filed in 1967, after GMe had been acquired by Philco-Ford.
Douglas C. Webb was born in Canada in 1929 and received an MS in electrical engineering in 1954 from Manchester University, England. He worked with Richard Grimsdale to construct a version of the Manchester Mark 1 computer in late 1953 that is believed to be the first operating machine based on transistors. He moved to Falmouth, MA in 1962 to join the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). Webb retired from WHOI in 1982 as a Senior Research Specialist to found Webb Research Corporation (WRC) to develop specialized instruments used in ocean research.
Welker, Heinrich (September 9, 1912 - December 25, 1981)
A German theoretical and applied physicist, Heinrich Welker was one of the most important European contributors to semiconductor science and technology. He earned his PhD in physics at the University of Munich in 1936 and worked on germanium processing in the German radar program during World War II. After the war he worked with Herbert Mataré at a subsidiary of Westinghouse in a Paris suburb to manufacture germanium diodes for military and communications applications. In mid-1948 they invented a three-contact semiconductor amplifier based on germanium that was similar to Bardeen and Brattain's point-contact transistor. The following year they announced the device, dubbed the "transistron," and put it into limited production. Welker joined Siemens-Schuckert in 1951, leading its solid-state physics department. There he pioneered the science and technology of gallium arsenide and other similar compound semiconductors for microwave and optoelectronic applications. During the 1960s he became director of all the company's research operations.
Widlar, Robert (November, 1937-February 27, 1991)
Robert (Bob) J. Widlar was born and raised in Cleveland, Ohio. On entering the Air Force in 1958 as a technical instructor he began taking courses through the University of Colorado at Boulder and graduated with a BS in electrical engineering in 1962. Widlar worked for a year at Ball Brothers, Boulder, CO and in 1963 joined Fairchild Semiconductor where as a linear integrated circuit designer he established a working relationship with process engineer David Talbert that resulted in the industry's first commercially successful linear devices. With Talbert he moved to Molectro Science Corporation in 1965 that was acquired by National Semiconductor in 1966. Working at National until 1970, he contributed many additional highly successful linear circuit designs. Widlar then moved to Puerto Vallarta, Mexico where he continued to design innovative products as an independent contractor for both National and Linear Technology until his death. In addition to his legacy as a designer, he is remembered for his hard-drinking and high-spirited antics frequently aimed at corporate bureaucracy.
Wilson, Alan (July 1906-September 1995)
Alan Herris Wilson graduated from Cambridge University, England in 1926 and spent from 1926 to 1940 engaged in research in quantum theory at Cambridge. He visited Werner Heisenberg's institute in Leipzig, Germany in 1931 where he developed one of the first models of semiconductor behavior. His papers on "The Theory of Electronic Semi-Conductors" influenced researchers at Bell Labs and Purdue University. Following World War II radio communications work he joined Courtaulds Ltd. as Director of Research and Development. In July 1962 he became a director of ICT (International Computers and Tabulators) and played a major role in the development of the British computer industry. Wilson joined the Board of Glaxo Group in January 1963, became Chairman the same year and remained until his retirement in 1973. Throughout his career Wilson had a wide record of public service - particularly in the area of encouraging scientific teaching and research.
Garth Wilson graduated from UC Berkeley with a BSEE in 1956, an MSEE in 1958 and a PhD in 1962. He joined the Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Laboratory, Palo Alto in 1966 as Linear IC Design Manager where together with Ted Jenkins he built a Schottky diode structure compatible with integrated circuit processing technology. In 1969 he co-founded Precision Monolithics with Marv Rudin. He served as Managing Director of the Non-Volatile Memory group at AMD in the late 1970s and then went onto leading positions at Intel and Digital Equipment Corporation before retiring in 1995.
Karl H. Zaininger joined the RCA research Laboratories after earning a BS in electrical engineering from the City College of New York in 1959. In 1960 he worked with Charles Mueller to develop RCA's first MOS transistor. He continued with RCA as a scientist and technical manager in silicon chip development technology for 20 years after which he managed a number of programs at the U.S. Army Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory and at the U.S. Solar Energy Research Institute. He received an MSE, MA and PhD from Princeton University. In the 1980s he was president of Siemens Corporate Research and Support, Inc. in Princeton, New Jersey and Director of the Siemens Research and Technology Laboratories. Zaininger was a vice president and senior partner at Thomas Group Inc., a management consulting firm before founding Global Technology Management Partnerships, a business consulting firm.