1833: First Semiconductor Effect is Recorded Michael Faraday describes the "extraordinary case" of his discovery of electrical conduction increasing with temperature in silver sulfide crystals. This is the opposite to that observed in copper and other metals.
1952: Transistorized Consumer Products Appear Semiconductors appear in battery-powered hearing aids and pocket radios where consumers are willing to pay a premium for portability and low power consumption.
1953: Transistorized Computers Emerge A transistorized computer prototype demonstrates the small size and low-power advantages of semiconductors compared to vacuum tubes.
1954: Diffusion Process Developed for Transistors Following the production of solar cells using high-temperature diffusion methods, Charles Lee and Morris Tanenbaum apply the technique to fabricate high-speed transistors.
1955: Development of Oxide Masking Carl Frosch and Lincoln Derick grow a silicon dioxide film on wafers to protect their surface and allow controlled diffusion into the underlying silicon.
1956: Silicon Comes to Silicon Valley Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory develops Northern California's first prototype silicon devices while training young engineers and scientists for the future Silicon Valley.
1963: Standard Logic IC Families introduced Diode Transistor Logic (DTL) families create a high-volume market for digital ICs but speed, cost, and density advantages establish Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL) as the most popular standard logic configuration by the late 1960s.
1964: First Commercial MOS IC Introduced General Microelectronics uses a Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) process to pack more transistors on a chip than bipolar ICs and builds the first calculator chip set using the technology.
1968: Silicon Gate Technology Developed for ICs Federico Faggin and Tom Klein improve the reliability, packing density, and speed of MOS ICs with a silicon-gate structure. Faggin designs the first commercial silicon-gate IC - the Fairchild 3708.
1974: General-Purpose Microcontroller Family is Announced A single-chip calculator design emerges as the TMS 1000 micro-control unit or MCU, a concept that spawned families of general-purpose digital workhorses that power the tools and toys of the developed world.
1974: Scaling of IC Process Design Rules Quantified IBM researcher Robert Dennard's paper on process scaling on MOS memories accelerates a global race to shrink physical dimensions and manufacture ever more complex integrated circuits.