What Happened Today, February 20th

Alan Turing
Alan Turing
 
Alan Turing Suggests Testing Artificial Intelligence with the Game of Chess
Computer pioneer Alan Turing suggests testing artificial intelligence with the game of chess in a lecture to the London Mathematical Society. Computers, he argued, must like humans be given training before their IQ is tested. A human mathematician has always undergone an extensive training. This training may be regarded as not unlike putting instruction tables into a machine, he said. One must therefore not expect a machine to do a very great deal of building up of instruction tables on its own.

What Happened This Week

 
First ComputerLand Franchise Store Opens
Following the success of IMS Associates, Inc. at selling the IMSAI 8080 by mail-order and through independent dealers, IMSAI founder Bill Millard made the decision to launch a franchise operation of computer retail stores. Initially called Computer Shack, the first ComputerLand franchise store opened on South Street in Morristown, New Jersey, on February 18, 1977. The chain changed its name to ComputerLand shortly thereafter following a threatened lawsuit over similarities of the name to Radio Shack. ComputerLand became the largest computer retailer by the mid-1980s, peaking at approximately 800 stores in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan. Bill Millard sold his stake in ComputerLand following a management struggle in 1986 to retire to the island of Saipan. After a twenty year-long unsuccessful pursuit by tax authorities, Millard was located again in the Cayman Islands in 2011.
Alan Turing
Alan Turing
 
Alan Turing Presents the "Proposal for the Development in the Mathematics Division of an Automatic Computing Engine (ACE)"
This research proposal was presented to a meeting of the Executive Committee of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in Teddington, England, and approved at a second meeting held a month later.

Turing based this research on von Neumann’s "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC." He had studied it in summer 1945 when he was recruited by J.R. Womersley to join the staff of the NPL.
 
The First Warrant Is Issued to Search a Computer Storage Device
The first warrant is issued to search a computer storage device. Although the requirements for obtaining such a warrant were similar to those for searching a home, they ushered in a new era that would lead to increasingly sophisticated methods of encryption to hide computer files from law enforcement agents.
Alan Turing
Alan Turing
 
Alan Turing Suggests Testing Artificial Intelligence with the Game of Chess
Computer pioneer Alan Turing suggests testing artificial intelligence with the game of chess in a lecture to the London Mathematical Society. Computers, he argued, must like humans be given training before their IQ is tested. A human mathematician has always undergone an extensive training. This training may be regarded as not unlike putting instruction tables into a machine, he said. One must therefore not expect a machine to do a very great deal of building up of instruction tables on its own.
 
Cox Enterprises Buys into Digital Domain
Cox Enterprises announces it was buying a one-third interest in Digital Domain, a computer-generated special effects company, in order to heighten the use of special effects in media. The deal reflected "another step in the rapid convergence of various computer, software, entertainment and media companies," The New York Times wrote.
 
BASIC Co-Inventor Thomas Kurtz Born
BASIC co-inventor Thomas Kurtz is born. With John Kemeny, Kurtz developed the easy-to-learn programming language for his students at Dartmouth College in the early 1960s. He said: "If Fortran is the lingua franca ... BASIC is the lingua playpen."
 
Prime Number Theorist Derrick Lehmer Born
Derrick Lehmer, one of the world's best known prime number theorists, is born in Berkeley, California. Before World War II, Lehmer invented a number of electromechanical sieves for finding prime numbers and made many important contributions in prime number theory throughout his life. Prime numbers are of interest in themselves as mathematical curiosities but are also of great importance to cryptography. The Computer History Museum has three Lehmer sieves in its permanent collection. Lehmer died in 1991.
Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
 
Apple Co-Founder Steve Jobs Born
Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs is born. Jobs was instrumental in developing the Macintosh, the computer that took Apple to unprecedented levels of success. After leaving the company he started with Steve Wozniak, Jobs continued his personal computer development at his NeXT Inc. In 1997, Jobs returned to Apple to lead the company into a new era based on NeXT technologies and consumer electronics. Some of Jobs’ achievements in this new era include the iMac, the iPhone, the iTunes music store, the iPod, and the iPad. Under Jobs’ leadership Apple was at one time the world’s most valuable company.